In India rationing system was introduced at the time of World War-II by the British Government. Through the rationing system the government provided rice, wheat and some of the other items to the ration card holders. It was carried out by the department of Food. After the war in 1943 the rationing system was abolished by the British Government. After Independence the government reintroduced the rationing system in 1950 to distribute food at low prices. It was called National Food Security System (NFSS). In order to strengthen the PDS, the government of India established the Food Corporation of India (FCI) in 1964. It ensures the Food security in our country. In this chapter an attempt is made to take a introduction and related review of the literature on public distribution system in India. The studies reviewed here are macro-level as well as micro-level based on secondary and primary data and conducted for different parts of the country.
In the developing and less developed countries Government undertakes various kinds of economic activities. One of these activities is to provide food to the poor and vulnerable section of the society. In India Public Distribution System is the most important and most popular food security measure. Under this system the Government provides essential food grains and other commodities at a very subsidized rate. Today this policy is an important facet of food management operations of a number of developing countries. But in the recent years the effectiveness of Public Distribution System is often questioned because of its potential impact on the consumption level of the consumer target group, its impact on other sectors of the economy, its cost, and its compatibility with a direct income transfer instead of price subsidies. So based on sample survey here we try to analyze the effectiveness of Public Distribution System as a food security measure in the Burdwan District of West Bengal, India. So this study tries to examine how much food is secured for the B.P.L families in the Burdwan District of West Bengal, India for maintaining their health at a reasonable level.
In India PDS is not the only answer for improving food security of the poor because it can help only those who have purchasing power. Other anti- poverty programs have to be strengthened as part of the economic reforms for creating income generation among the poor and vulnerable sections of the people. So Public Distribution System will become a fruitful food security program if it is merged with the employment generating programs and nutrition based programs. From the above study I see that National Rural Employment Guarantee scheme (NREGS) has the great potential in enhancing food security and livelihood security of the rural poor. From this study I have seen that Public Distribution System is socially viable but it is not economically viable. Actual poor people will be the ultimate looser if this scheme is abolished completely. As it is a socially viable approach, we should not abolish it completely. Rather we have to remove the loopholes inherent in it. We can get better result if PDS is merged with employment schemes like NREGS. As NREGS is self targeting, the non poor people will be automatically opt out if it is merged with Public Distribution System.
“Every man, woman and child has the inalienable right to be free from hunger and malnutrition in order to develop their physical and mental faculties” – 1974 World Food Conference. Food security as a concept originated around the mid-1970s during the discussions of international food problems at a time of global food crisis. The initial focus of food security was primarily on food supply problems of assuring the availability and to some degree the price stability of basic foodstuffs at the international and national level. In India during pre-Independent suffered repeated famines, droughts and food shortages. But during the Green Revolution in the 1960s, the production and yield of food grain rose manifold. This paper looks into the trend of foodgrain production & consumption in India, the linkages between foodgrain production and consumption in India & selected States and the role of PDS (Public Distribution System) in foodgrain consumption in India and States. This paper illuminates some concerns of immediate relevance to policy reform in the context of food security in India through Public Distribution System.
Privatization is considered as an important technique for enhancing the rate of growth in India through unlocking the idel and depreciating wealth in the public sector and reduction of fiscal deficits. The economic activites in the country have been taken up both by the central and state governments which have launched privatisation programmeto to pro up the tempo of economic development. The present volume attempts to study the concept of privatisation and gives a broad picture of the public enterprises in general and the state level public enterprises with reference to Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. The main objective of the study is to analyse the practices of privatisation to understand the concepts and consequences that led to privatisation in India, to understand the policies and programmes adopted for privatisation in states of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, to study privatisation scenario in different nations and to study the social safety net programmes in the selected privatized enterprise in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. The study summaries the main findings and suggestions.
The State of Andhra Pradesh accounts for about 50 per cent of the country’s tobacco growing ea and about 45 per cent of the ‘total production. About 95 per cent of the area and production of FOV tobacco in India is accounted for by Andhra Pradesh alone. The FCV variety of tobacco is primarily used for cigarette manufacture and earns substantial foreign exchange resources. Thus, the State of Andhra Pradesh has near monopoly in the cultivation of FCV tobacco and has an average annual production of about 594 million kg. Out of this, about 50 per cent is exported to various countries. Apart from FOV, natu, lanka and burley varieties of tobacco are extensively grow in Andhra Pradesh. Tobacco is one of the principal. non-food crops in Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore districts. Certain tracts of Krishna, West Godavari and Kharimnagar districts also have tobacco cultivation. Tobacco plays a significant role in the economy of the State. Apart from being the principal nonfood crops, tobacco cultivation provides employment to 1.5 lakh workers in curing, grading, and packing operations and another 15 thousand workers in the manufacturing industry in the State .
This book introduces the concept of cropping system research in a comprehensive manner. The importance of cropping system research in Indian agriculture in general and the status of it in Andhra Pradesh (A.P) was discussed. The different perspectives with which different faculties of researchers in Agriculture viz., Agronomists, Soil scientists, Agricultural Economists and Extension scientists would perceive the cropping system research was presented in the form of various methodologies used in analyzing the cropping systems mostly in A.P. For the convenience of the readers the cropping system research was suitably divided into Agronomic, experimental and economic analyses. Agro climate wise predominant cropping and farming systems existing in A.P was provided as a back ground material in addition to the district wise socio – economic aspects and the sub sector wise overall progress in the Introductory chapter. In this process it was attempted to present the cropping system research in a holistic manner with special reference to A.P. This book can serve as a reference to the Researchers, Academicians and students who are interested in cropping system research.
Devadasi system gained considerable popularity during the Vijayanagaram emperor’s period, in India the Devadasi system existed all over the country, but known with different names in different regions. As Bhavinis in Goa, Bhagtan or Bhagtani in Marwar1.Mahavir in Kerela, Natis in Assam, Mardti in Maharastra, Basavi or Mathamma or Jogini in Andhra Pradesh and Jogatis or Basavis in Karnataka2 exhibiting certain unique features. For they were known originally as ‘Devadasi’ whose purpose was to entertain God3. The temple in the term ‘Devadasi’ means a ‘Servant to god’ something like priestess who sacrifices her physical pleasures and family life and chooses to serve god throughout her life by leading a life a saint.The public were brainwashed that religious practices as prescribed by the leaders were the only means of emancipation for human kind. Devadasi means woman for the service of some deity of sacred object in a temple. Also called Mathamma or Jogini in many parts of South India.
Yerukulas are one of the major schedule tribes in Andhra Pradesh, distributed chiefly all over the plains in the State but sparsely in the adjacent States like Tamilnadu and Karnataka1, and few other contiguous states like Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Though, they go by name Yerukulas in Andhra Pradesh, they are also known by several names in various states as 'Koravas1 in Tamilnadu, 'Korchas1 or 'Koramas1 in Karnataka and Kerala 'Kaikaris' in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.2"4 They speak Dravidian dialect known as 'Yerukali' o r 'Kurru1 which is an admixture of several Dravidian languages-Telugu, Tamil and Kannada5. Within Andhra Pradesh, they are more densely spread across the whole of Coastal region than they are in the Telangana and Rayalaseema regions.
Normally soil is considered as static, but in reality it is dynamic, ever-changing and evolving. It is the continued response of the soil to its environment that determines its state of productivity. Since, all agricultural activities are directly or indirectly affected by ‘how the soil is to be handled’ hence its health become prime concern.The competing demands for finite soil resources by different sectors emphasize the need for appropriate land use planning. This is focused our attention to develop alternative suitable land use options for sustaining the increasing population with environmental security. Therefore, the knowledge on nature and properties of soils, their relationship with landforms and spatial distribution is very essential for developing a suitable land use plan.Though sporadic information is available on characterization and classification of soils in Andhra Pradesh , no information is available on these aspects for the soils of Banaganapalle mandal in particular and Kurnool district, in general.
The Panchayat Raj System has been working for the development of society.There are many advantages with it. Many changes has been taking place in this but still the system is not up to the mark, people and policy makers are ignoring it importance for certain extant. Self government concept at individual level of every Grama Panchayat is good for resource allocation, decision making and control of developmental activities. This book entitled "Working of Panchayat Raj system in Andhra Pradesh" consist of eight chapters in this regard will help the students to lead a understanding of panchayat raj system for its actions, provisions and its responsibility in surrounding to them. It is in this context that there is now an urgency to lay a strong foundation and strengthen Panchayat Raj system.
Housing is one of the basic necessities of human life, besides food and clothing. Housing is an important constituent of the quality of life. Lack of proper housing is considered an indication of social poverty. Majority of the families in Afro-Asian countries live in semi Pucca or kutcha houses and India is no exception. The demand for housing has been tremendously increasing due to alarming rise in the population on one side and collapse of kutcha houses (thatched) due to lack of proper maintenance natural hazards on the other. Keeping in view the serious implications of the social poverty on the overall human development, The United Nations declared 1987 as the "International year of the Shelter for the Homeless". As a result many countries have considered housing as one of the prime concerns in their national agenda. Housing is also an index of the socio-economic progress of a country. It is recognized as a productive activity, which stimulates employment and economic growth. It also provides the base for increased access to health, education, water supply and sanitation, especially for the poor and the vulnerable groups.
“Economic growth contributes most to poverty reduction when it expands the employment, productivity and wages of poor people and when public resources are channelled to promoting human development.... A virtuous cycle of economic growth and human development arises when growth is labour using and employment generating and when human skills and health improve rapidly”. -UNDP, Human Development Report (1997)
Paradox of Food Insecurity (FI) with plenty of Food has been found in Orissa, India, like any other part in World. Investigating into the causes, we found that – Entitlement failure rather than Food Availability Decline is the detrimental factor of Food Deprivation in Orissa. This has supported the arguments of the Nobel laureate Amartya Sen (1981). Public support through Public Distribution System (PDS) could have reduced FI but its’ poor designing, implementation & functioning left the poor in the cold. The household data collected from field exhibits - PDS could not reduced FI substantially, mainly due to meager amount of entitlement of rice, higher subsidy in sugar and existence of targeting errors (both Type I & Type II errors), which has led to inefficient income transfer. PDS provides only around 11 percent of the monthly per capita consumption to the surveyed households. Hike in the issue prices of PDS ration has cascading effects in reducing the household’s expenditure on food, cloth, education and health substantially. But given the weaker demand side; a well-designed PDS is necessary in the state. The book will be useful for researchers, academicians & policy makers.
In this book the author discussed about e-governance in Indian states and e-governance of other countries like U.S.A, U.K, Japan, South Africa, Mexico, New Zealand. National E-governance Policy of India, Andhra Pradesh E-governance Practice especially concentrated on E-seva Policy of Andhra Pradesh & Citizen Perception on E-seva Policy of Andhra Pradesh, India.