Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder characterized by a chronic hemolytic anemia that contributes to painful crises. It is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by production of abnormal hemoglobin S and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It may influence the quality of life of children, who may require more frequent hospital care. Quality of life refers to people’s ability to function in the ordinary tasks of living. It moves beyond direct manifestations of illness to the patient's personal morbidity.
Sickle cell anemia is one of the major hereditary health problem in tropical Africa where the sickle cell gene frequency is particularly high. The disease occurs with high incidence in west,east and central Africa and this has been related to the prevalence of malaria in these regions. The classic hallmark of sickle cell anemia are episodes of vaso-occlusive crisis often with multiorgan manifestation and chronic haemolytic anemia. vaso-occlusive crisis is the most common cause of hospitalization in sickle cell disease. It affects the growth and academic performance of individual. Thus it would be quite helpful to terminate such painful episodes at a very early stage. Serum CPK,LDH and 24 hour urinary creatinine can be used as potential markers of tissue ischemia in such painful episodes.
The present study highlights the role of G6PD deficiency and Sickle Cell Anemia in causing high rate of mortality among the Warlis of Dadar and Nagar Haveli which is also a malarial endemic region. This data is important for health planners and health managers as efforts need to be made to curb the further propagation of G6PDD and HBS in the population. However, more such studies are needed on other populations, which would help in the comparison and evolution of the incidence and distribution of such genetic markers (G6PD deficiency and Sickle Cell Anemia) with various populations.
An estimated 16,000 babies with sickle cell disease are born in Ghana every year.Many of these children die before anyone, including their parents and health service providers become aware that they have sickle cell disease. This sad situation has come about because this country lacks well-organized national program to care for people with the disease.The objective of this book is to create awareness of sickle cell disease among young adults before marriage. Thus all young adults of African descend have to make wise choices to have children without the disease.
Sickle cell anaemia is a hereditary blood disorder presenting with chronic anaemia. Patients with this disorder are prone to various infections of which urinary tract infection is one.This book is important because urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the paediatric age group.Also a major precipitant of sickle cell crises and one of the the greatest cause of death at all ages. Therefore I carried out a prospective study to determine the prevalence of bacteriuria and bacterial isolates in the urine of febrile children with SCA at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Masiduguri-Nigeria. 250 with SCA and 250 age- and sex- matched controls were studied.The prevalence of bacteriuria in children with SCA was 26%. E. coli and Klebsiella species were the predominant isolates from the urine in the SCA group.Nitrite test has showed high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value in determining bacteriuria. Sensitivity to antibiotics was highest to ceftriazone 89.2%.This book will be of great value to doctors, Medical and Paramedical Students, Parents of children with SCA and Children suffering from SCD across the globe.
Sickle cell disease is a major public health concern in the state of Chhattisgarh, India. Sickle cell disease is a recessive inherited structural disorder of hemoglobin. The abnormal hemoglobin causes distorted shapes (which appear sickle like) red blood cells. These abnormal RBCs are fragile and prone to rupture. Normal hemoglobin is called Hb A, but people with sickle cell disease have only Hb S. When fetal hemoglobin production is turned off after birth, normal people begin to produce adult hemoglobin (HbA). Children with sickle-cell disease instead begin producing a defective form of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S.If fetal hemoglobin remains the predominant form of hemoglobin after birth, the number of painful episodes decreases in patients with sickle-cell disease. Xmn I polymorphism is a factor that has been found to increase fetal hemoglobin production.
Fanconi anemia (FA) is autosomal recessive disorder. Molecular study of FA revealed that there are 15 genetic subtypes groups with FANCA gene being the most frequent. The rate of successful cytogenetic cell culture varies with the specific type of disease. Many factors can affect the cytogenetic cell culture and the successful appearance of metaphase. The determination of the amount of blood uses in cytogenetic cell culture is important to obtain excellent metaphase. The highlight of the book lies on identification and diagnosis of Fanconi anemia among aplastic anemia patients with Special emphasis on identification of FANCA gene mutations. The book also improves the chromosomal breakage test and reduces lymphocyte cell culture failure. The book is extremely useful for medical laboratory students and researchers working in hematology. Postgraduate students would find this book informative and handy.
In Pakistan, prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is about 65%. Iron deficiency anemia is not a simple clinical problem as it plays a critical role in initiation of febrile seizures. It is more frequently observed among those children presenting with febrile seizures (70%) as compared to children presenting with fever with no febrile seizures (30%). There is considerable evidence that iron is important for neurological functions and brain energy metabolism and affect several other organs and systems of the body. Febrile seizures are very common in children. The occurrence of febrile seizures can potentially compromise the quality of life and is a source of great anxiety for parents.
Fluid therapy in veterinary patients is an emerging area having tremendous potentialities. Plasma transfusion is a life saving application in the therapeutic and prophylactic management of conditioned encountered in veterinary practice. Calves suffering from malnutrition, parasitism and anemia may not respond to conventional treatment. Plasma transfusion in these animals might be practiced to promote body immunity and thereby to reduce mortality as plasma transfusion is free from the risk of incompatible reaction. Calves in the rural areas reared under poor husbandry practices suffer from anemia, malnutrition, mineral and electrolyte deficiency. These calves do not respond to specific transfusion. That’s why we have initiated to study the influence of plasma and vitamins and minerals on the improvement of health status of calves in the field condition.
Anemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries. It is more common in diabetic patients due to the presence of multiple factors like nutritional deficiencies, inflammation, concomitant autoimmune diseases and kidney diseases. Several studies have reported that the prevalence of anemia varying from 9 to 25% in diabetic populations. Diabetic patients, many of whom already have an impaired quality of life; anemia constitutes an unwelcome additional burden for them. Studies indicate that low Hb levels in such patients may increase risk for progression of nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular diseases. Unrecognized and untreated anemia among diabetes can seriously affect their health and well-being. Early correction of anemia has the potential to prevent or reverse the complications. However, several studies in Bangladesh revealed an increasing trend of anemia among general population. But there is lack of appropriate studies on the prevalence of anemia among diabetic patients.Therefore the objective of the study was to determine the prevalence, types and determinants of anemia among Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic population.
The book: Cafergot and its effect in sickle cell erythrocytes: is an excellent book designed to provide concise summary of in vitro effect of cafergot in sickle cell erythrocytes. Cafergot is an egort alkaloid and adrenergic blocking agent used in the treatment of migraine headache. In this book, it was observed that cafergort has an adverse effect in sickle cell erythrocytes. It is a research oriented book and it would be very helpful to researchers,scientists,medical doctors,as well as undergraduates in higher institutions.
Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited genetic disorder characterized by an abnormal haemoglobin (HbS) which results in the polymerization of the red cells under certain physiological conditions leading to sickling. This work was carried out to find the effect of papaverine (an alkaloid) as a possible drug for the management of sickle cell anaemia. Electrophoresis was carried out on various blood samples – AA, AS, and SS to confirm their genotype. Haematological parameters, serum calcium level and lipid peroxidation assays were carried out. The result of the haematological studies reveal that the sickle cell patient had an increase in red blood cell, haemoglobin count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a decrease in platelet count and when compared to HbAA and HbAS. Serum calcium levels show an increased level in the sickle cell patients compared to the other genotypes. The result of the lipid peroxidation assay show that HbSS has the highest value in the lipid peroxidation product. After incubation with papaverine, the lipid peroxidation level decreased in all the groups. Thus, Papaverine could be a possible drug for the management of sickle cell anaemia.
Sickle Cell Disease has become recognized as a world wide problem affecting millions of people. Despite the common occurence of the disease, public awareness is low with the condition often attributed to cultural beliefs such as "ogbanje" and "abiku" (children born to taunt their parents by dying young). Beliefs change when younger, educated generations pass on their knowledge to the community where they serve as teachers, health and extension workers. This work focused on youth knowledge of sickle cell disease and aspects of prevention, like haemoglobin genotype screening. This well researched dissertation is recommended to policy makers, public health specialists, communication and behaviour change experts, advocates, educationists and programmes targeted at youths and adolescents in order to kindle and strengthen the recommended preventive behaviours.
• Sickle cell disease is one of the most causes of morbidity and mortality among children.Sickling test is still the mainstay tool for diagnosis of Hb S ,the highlight of the book lies on evaluation of sickling test in diagnosis of sickle cell disease by knowing of sensitivity and specificity of sikling test in compare with hemoglobin electrophoresis as standard method. * Determination of sensitivity and specificity of scikling test will helps to choose the appropriate method for diagnosis of sickle cell disease. •Extremely useful for medical laboratory students and researchers working in hematology.
Anemia is one of the commonest medical disorders. It is a pathological condition in which the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells is insufficient to meet the body’s needs. Nutritional anemia is the most important cause of maternal anemia. Anemia during pregnancy has been reported to increase the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and low birth weight infants. Strong evidence also exists for an association between maternal anemia and preterm birth and premature rupture of membranes. Moreover, women who suffer from anemia during pregnancy are more liable to have heavy bleeding at the time of birth. Severe anemia may weaken uterine muscle, contributing to postpartum hemorrhage and subsequent maternal mortality. Appropriate preconception evaluation and antenatal follow up, together with iron supplementation programs should be implemented to minimize the prevalence of anemia and its adverse maternal and fetal effects.