This book provides a cross-disciplinary reference to speech in mobile and pervasive environments Speech in Mobile and Pervasive Environments addresses the issues related to speech processing on resource-constrained mobile devices. These include speech recognition in noisy environments, specialised hardware for speech recognition and synthesis, the use of context to enhance recognition and user experience, and the emerging software standards required for interoperability. This book takes a multi-disciplinary look at these matters, while offering an insight into the opportunities and challenges of speech processing in mobile environs. In developing regions, speech-on-mobile is set to play a momentous role, socially and economically; the authors discuss how voice-based solutions and applications offer a compelling and natural solution in this setting. Key Features Provides a holistic overview of all speech technology related topics in the context of mobility Brings together the latest research in a logically connected way in a single volume Covers hardware, embedded recognition and synthesis, distributed speech recognition, software technologies, contextual interfaces Discusses multimodal dialogue systems and their evaluation Introduces speech in mobile and pervasive environments for developing regions This book provides a comprehensive overview for beginners and experts alike. It can be used as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students in electrical engineering and computer science. Students, practitioners or researchers in the areas of mobile computing, speech processing, voice applications, human-computer interfaces, and information and communication technologies will also find this reference insightful. For experts in the above domains, this book complements their strengths. In addition, the book will serve as a guide to practitioners working in telecom-related industries.
Construction researchers and industry practitioners have begun to explore the possibilities offered by mobile and pervasive computing in architecture, engineering and construction (AEC). It is expected that the construction industry will be keen to apply these technologies as they promise significant benefits in areas such as materials management, project management, distributed collaboration and information management, all leading to improvements in productivity. This book offers a comprehensive reference volume to the use of mobile and pervasive computing in construction. Based on contributions from a mix of leading researchers and experts from academia and industry, it provides up-to-date insights into current research topics in this field as well as the latest technological advancements and practical examples. The chapters introduce the key theoretical concepts in mobile and pervasive computing and highlight the applications and solutions which are available to the construction industry. More specifically, the book focuses on the manner in which these technologies can be applied to improve practices in construction and related industries. This book will be of particular interest to academics, researchers, and graduate students at universities and industrial practitioners seeking to apply mobile and pervasive computing systems to improve construction industry productivity.
Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, using differing tasks and approaches to better understand and utilize such communications. This book covers the state-of-the-art approaches for the most popular SLU tasks with chapters written by well-known researchers in the respective fields. Key features include: Presents a fully integrated view of the two distinct disciplines of speech processing and language processing for SLU tasks. Defines what is possible today for SLU as an enabling technology for enterprise (e.g., customer care centers or company meetings), and consumer (e.g., entertainment, mobile, car, robot, or smart environments) applications and outlines the key research areas. Provides a unique source of distilled information on methods for computer modeling of semantic information in human/machine and human/human conversations. This book can be successfully used for graduate courses in electronics engineering, computer science or computational linguistics. Moreover, technologists interested in processing spoken communications will find it a useful source of collated information of the topic drawn from the two distinct disciplines of speech processing and language processing under the new area of SLU.
The focus of this book is on speech production and speech processing associated with cleft palate, covering phonetic (perceptual and instrumental), phonological and psycholinguistic perspectives, and including coverage of implications for literacy and education, as well as cross-linguistic differences. It draws together a group of international experts in the fields of cleft lip and palate and speech science to provide an up-to-date and in-depth account of the nature of speech production, and the processes and current evidence base of assessment and intervention for speech associated with cleft palate. The consequences of speech disorders associated with cleft on intelligibility and communicative participation are also covered. This book will provide a solid theoretical foundation and a valuable clinical resource for students of speech-language pathology, for practising speech-language pathologists, and for others interested in speech production in cleft palate, including researchers and members of multi-disciplinary cleft teams who wish to know more about the nature of speech difficulties associated with a cleft palate.
The 16th issue of Speech: investigates local architectural traditions and building materials in the context of global trends. Examples range from Finnish housing complexes to wooden architecture in Russia and clay buildings in Africa and Indonesia.
This book presents tools and algorithms required to compress/uncompress signals such as speech and music. These algorithms are largely used in mobile phones, DVD players, HDTV sets, etc. In a first rather theoretical part, this book presents the standard tools used in compression systems: scalar and vector quantization, predictive quantization, transform quantization, entropy coding. In particular we show the consistency between these different tools. The second part explains how these tools are used in the latest speech and audio coders. The third part gives Matlab programs simulating these coders.
A complete overview of distant automatic speech recognition The performance of conventional Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems degrades dramatically as soon as the microphone is moved away from the mouth of the speaker. This is due to a broad variety of effects such as background noise, overlapping speech from other speakers, and reverberation. While traditional ASR systems underperform for speech captured with far-field sensors, there are a number of novel techniques within the recognition system as well as techniques developed in other areas of signal processing that can mitigate the deleterious effects of noise and reverberation, as well as separating speech from overlapping speakers. Distant Speech Recognitionpresents a contemporary and comprehensive description of both theoretic abstraction and practical issues inherent in the distant ASR problem. Key Features: Covers the entire topic of distant ASR and offers practical solutions to overcome the problems related to it Provides documentation and sample scripts to enable readers to construct state-of-the-art distant speech recognition systems Gives relevant background information in acoustics and filter techniques, Explains the extraction and enhancement of classification relevant speech features Describes maximum likelihood as well as discriminative parameter estimation, and maximum likelihood normalization techniques Discusses the use of multi-microphone configurations for speaker tracking and channel combination Presents several applications of the methods and technologies described in this book Accompanying website with open source software and tools to construct state-of-the-art distant speech recognition systems This reference will be an invaluable resource for researchers, developers, engineers and other professionals, as well as advanced students in speech technology, signal processing, acoustics, statistics and artificial intelligence fields.
Explore the game-changing technology that allows mobile learning to effectively reach K-12 students Mobile Learning: A Handbook for Developers, Educators and Learners provides research-based foundations for developing, evaluating, and integrating effective mobile learning pedagogy. Twenty-first century students require twenty-first century technology, and mobile devices provide new and effective ways to educate children. But with new technologies come new challenges—therefore, this handbook presents a comprehensive look at mobile learning by synthesizing relevant theories and drawing practical conclusions for developers, educators, and students. Mobile devices—in ways that the laptop, the personal computer, and netbook computers have not—present the opportunity to make learning more engaging, interactive, and available in both traditional classroom settings and informal learning environments. From theory to practice, Mobile Learning explores how mobile devices are different than their technological predecessors, makes the case for developers, teachers, and parents to invest in the technology, and illustrates the many ways in which it is innovative, exciting, and effective in educating K-12 students. Explores how mobile devices can support the needs of students Provides examples, screenshots, graphics, and visualizations to enhance the material presented in the book Provides developers with the background necessary to create the apps their audience requires Presents the case for mobile learning in and out of classrooms as early as preschool Discusses how mobile learning enables better educational opportunities for the visually impaired, students with Autism, and adult learners. If you're a school administrator, teacher, app developer, or parent, this topical book provides a theoretical, well-researched discussion of the pedagogical theory and mobile learning, as well as practical advice in setting up a mobile learning strategy.
Dialogue management technology has developed rapidly over the years resulting in real-time applications like telephony directories, timetable enquiries, and in-car applications. However, the current technology is still largely based on models that use rigid command language type interactions, and the users need to adapt their human communication strategies to the needs of the technology. As an increasing number of interactive ubiquitous applications will appear, challenges for interaction technology concern especially natural, more human-friendly communication. Recent research has focused on developing speech-based interactive systems that aim to increase the system’s communicative competence. By including aspects of interaction beyond simple speech recognition and question-answer based interaction, applications with more conversational interfaces have become possible. New dialogue management technology needs to address the challenges in human-technology interaction, so that smart environments should not only enable user-controlled command interfaces but equip applications with a capability that affords easy and friendly interactions with the user. Dialogue Modelling: Speech Interaction and Rational Agents provides an overview of the current dialogue technology and research trends in spoken dialogue systems, presenting a coherent perspective of AI-based cooperative interaction management. The book complements existing research regarding human-computer interfaces, speech and language technology, and communication studies in general, bringing different view-points together and integrating them into a single point of reference. Constructive Dialogue Modelling: Presents a guide to spoken dialogue technology and current research trends. Provides an overview of human factors in dialogue systems and delivers a new metaphor for human-computer interaction and computer as agent. Explains the architecture of dialogue systems using examples from systems such as Interact and DUMAS Offers a comprehensive overview of original research into the new trends in speech dialogue technology in light of innovations such as ubiquitous computing. This book will provide essential reading for industrial designers and interface engineers, university researchers and teachers, computer scientists, human communication researchers, speech and language technologists, cognitive engineers/cognitive scientists, as well as social and media researchers, and psychologists. Advanced students and researchers in computer science, speech and language technologies, psychology and communication research will find this text of interest.
Written in an engaging and jargon-free style by a team of international and interdisciplinary experts, Modern Environments and Human Health demonstrates by example how methods, theoretical approaches, and data from a wide range of disciplines can be used to resolve longstanding questions about the second epidemiological transition. The first book to address the subject from a multi-regional, comparative, and interdisciplinary perspective, Modern Environments and Human Health is a valuable resource for students and academics in biological anthropology, economics, history, public health, demography, and epidemiology.
Changing Cold Environments; Implications for Global Climate Change is a comprehensive overview of the changing nature of the physical attributes of Canada's cold environments and the implications of these changes to cold environments on a global scale. The book places particular emphasis on the broader environmental science and sustainability issues that are of increasing concern to all cold regions if present global climate trends continue. Clearly structured throughout, the book focuses on those elements of Canada's cold environments that will be most affected by global climate change – namely, the tundra, sub-arctic and boreal forest regions of northern Canada, and the high mid-latitude mountains of western Canada. Implications are considered for similar environments around the world resulting in a timely text suitable for second and third year undergraduates in the environmental or earth sciences courses.
Fish lives in environments with a wide variety of chemical characteristics (fresh, brackish and seawater, acidic, alkaline, soft and hard waters). From an osmoregulatory point of view, fish have developed several mechanisms to live in these different environments. Fish osmoregulation has always attracted considerable attention and in the last years several studies have increased our knowledge of this physiological process. In this book several specialists have analyzed and reviewed the new data published regarding fish osmoregulation. The chapters present an integrative synthesis of the different aspects of this field focusing on osmoregulation in specific environments or situations, function of osmoregulatory organs, general mechanisms and endocrine control. In addition, interactions of osmoregulatory mechanisms with the immune system, diet and metabolism were also reviewed. New emerging techniques to study osmoregulation has also been analysed.
This book discusses large margin and kernel methods for speech and speaker recognition Speech and Speaker Recognition: Large Margin and Kernel Methods is a collation of research in the recent advances in large margin and kernel methods, as applied to the field of speech and speaker recognition. It presents theoretical and practical foundations of these methods, from support vector machines to large margin methods for structured learning. It also provides examples of large margin based acoustic modelling for continuous speech recognizers, where the grounds for practical large margin sequence learning are set. Large margin methods for discriminative language modelling and text independent speaker verification are also addressed in this book. Key Features: Provides an up-to-date snapshot of the current state of research in this field Covers important aspects of extending the binary support vector machine to speech and speaker recognition applications Discusses large margin and kernel method algorithms for sequence prediction required for acoustic modeling Reviews past and present work on discriminative training of language models, and describes different large margin algorithms for the application of part-of-speech tagging Surveys recent work on the use of kernel approaches to text-independent speaker verification, and introduces the main concepts and algorithms Surveys recent work on kernel approaches to learning a similarity matrix from data This book will be of interest to researchers, practitioners, engineers, and scientists in speech processing and machine learning fields.
Fully revised and expanded, the third edition of Acoustic and Auditory Phonetics maintains a balance of accessibility and scholarly rigor to provide students with a complete introduction to the physics of speech. Newly updated to reflect the latest advances in the field Features a balanced and student-friendly approach to speech, with engaging side-bars on related topics Includes suggested readings and exercises designed to review and expand upon the material in each chapter, complete with selected answers Presents a new chapter on speech perception that addresses theoretical issues as well as practical concerns
Caroline Bowen’s Children’s Speech Sound Disorders will be welcomed by experienced and novice clinicians, clinical educators, and students in the field of speech-language pathology/speech and language therapy for its practical, clinical focus. Drawing on the evidence base where possible, and making important theory to practice links overt, Bowen enhances her comprehensive account of assessment and clinical management of children with protracted or problematic speech development, with the addition of forty nine expert essays. These unique contributions are authored by fifty one internationally respected academicians, clinicians, researchers and thinkers representing a range of work settings, expertise, paradigms and theoretical orientations. In response to frequently asked questions about their work they address key theoretical, assessment, intervention, and service delivery issues.