This research investigated the reading strategies used by students at university level in Venezuela when reading in their native language, Spanish, and in reading English as a foreign language. The effects of proficiency level and of frequency of reading on the frequency and type of reading comprehension strategies in Spanish (L1) and English (L2) were also examined. The findings revealed that word problem focused strategies were used little in L1, where text strategies evidencing a top-down approach were evident, especially among more proficient readers. In L2, there was more use of word problem strategies, with more proficient readers having a wider repertoire. The conclusion supports partially investigations that have linked the transfer of native language reading strategies to second/foreign language proficiency, where a minimum threshold is required.
Considering reading as a fundamental skill in learning a foreign language, factors which can be of enhancing role deserve to be investigated. Metacognitive awareness of reading strategies is regarded as a variable which is hypothesized to assist learners in the demanding task of comprehending a text. The book which comes in eight chapters tries to touch on the most important issues in reading skill and reading strategy use. It starts with presenting the nature of reading skill, process and phases of reading and also a discussion on the role of schema in reading. In chapter two reading models are presented and chapter three and four are respectively devoted to defining language learning strategies and reading strategy use. The studies on metacognitive awareness of reading strategies in English language teaching (ELT) context are vastly reviewed in chapter five. Further, methodology, results and implications of the current study are offered in chapter six to eight. The book which explores the associations between metacognitive awareness of reading strategies and reading achievement of the learners in an ELT context has pedagogical implications for language learners and teachers.
This mixed-methods study, using a task-based reading strategy inventory, a background questionnaire, think-alouds and semi-structured interviews, began as an attempt to address the gaps in research by investigating 345 Taiwanese 8th grade students who were learning English in an EFL setting, and whose L1 (i.e., Chinese) differs greatly from their L2 (i.e., English) especially in their writing systems: one is non-alphabetic, and the other is alphabetic. The two languages also differ morphologically and syntactically. The purposes of this study were: (a) to examine how 8th grade Taiwanese readers monitored, regulated, and controlled their reading-related thoughts and actions (i.e., reading strategies) to comprehend expository texts in the L1 (Chinese) and the L2 (English); (b) to inspect the relationship between reading achievement and reading strategy use; (c) to investigate the transfer of strategies across languages; (d) to uncover students’ views and attitudes toward L1 and L2 reading tasks and reading strategies; and (e) to study the relationships among six personal variables with strategy use.
This study investigates reticence and anxiety in EFL (English as a foreign language) oral testing situations within a formal learning institution in China. Drawing on theories and methods from several disciplines, this book explores the issues via a mixed method from various aspects—causes and consequences, differences in terms of gender and proficiency level, and coping strategies. Based on a large-scale survey and a more focused case study, this book argues persuasively that reticence and anxiety during oral English tests are important factors affecting test performance.
Strategies Transfer in Reading provides an account of the theoretical aspects of reading comprehension, including Buttom-Up Processing, Top-Down Processing, and Interactive Model . It also provides the reader information about Learning Strategies, Typology of Learning Strategies, the concept of transfer, Transfer of Learning Strategies, Reading strategies, reading process, Declarative VS. Procedural Knowledge and Related Empirical studies. It argues where English as a Foreign Language learnes with a particular L1 background may encounter difficulties in strategic reading in L2. It examines the reading process in two languages to find out if there is one system for strategic reading both in L1 and L2 in one mind or one system for each.
This book would be a helpful guide for the students and researchers who are interested in Task-based learning/teaching and wish to improve, specially the reading skill in learning/teaching English as a second language. The present book is a study done in an English Institute in Iran, on a group of students at the beginner level by whom various reading tasks have been completed during their English learning courses.The study has shown some fruitful results which could be useful for further studies in this field.
Reading skills are very important for academic success. Proper use of reading strategies enhances reading comprehension skills of learners. This study investigated the use of strategies in reading academic texts by undergraduate EFL/ESL students in Bangladesh. The main objectives of the study were to identify the most frequently used reading strategies and examine the differences in reading strategy use based on students’ gender, level of reading proficiency and year of experiences at university. The findings revealed that learners’ gender, language proficiency and experiences influenced their use of reading strategies to some extent as statistically significant differences were found in the use of some individual reading strategies. The study suggests for an inclusion of strategy instruction with a special focus on metacognitive reading strategies in classroom teaching. The study also offers important suggestions for materials developers, curriculum designers, ELT teachers and learners as well for better teaching and learning of academic reading strategies in an EFL/ESL context.
A key finding in the 1980s and 1990s is that childrenwho develop good phonological awareness (PA) skillswent on to become good readers. A second criticalfinding in the 1990s and this decade (2000s) is thatchildren who develop strong oral language skillsdevelop good PA skills, thus becoming good readers. This study examined the extent to which the earlyelementary (kindergarten and first grade) L1 and L2oral language skills of Spanish-speaking Englishlanguage learners predict reading performance at theend of elementary school (fifth grade). Morespecifically, the study investigated the jointlongitudinal effects of Spanish-language andEnglish-language proficiency on reading performanceby the time students were ready to enter the middleschool grades. The results demonstrate that combinedL1 and L2 early language skills, for students in bothbilingual education and English immersion programs,predicted fifth-grade reading comprehension skillsjust as well as did early decoding skills. This studybreaks new ground by examining the long-term effectof ELL students? oral language proficiency, in boththeir first language (Spanish L1) and second language(English L2), on English reading achievement. Thisanalysis will be useful to educators who teachEnglish language learners, and to policy makers whomust decide how best to instruct these students.
The strategies for teaching English have undergone various changes due to the gradual changes in the approaches that underpin language learning. This study sought to investigate how teachers of English in a Tanzanian secondary school use various strategies to help learners develop communicative competence in English. The literature reveals that the teaching of English in Tanzania is encumbered by many challenges. The study confirmed that both teachers and students face challenges that impede the use of more effective. strategies in developing language competence. Such challenges include learners’ language background, inadequate teaching and learning resources and teachers’ lack of knowledge and skills in using CLT methodology, coupled with poor teacher training among other challenges. In addition, the findings established that though the teachers of English endeavor to use a variety of strategies, there is a need to improve the way these strategies are used so as to develop communicative language competence in learners. The study recommends that teachers of English should employ more interactive CLT strategies that would enhance communicative language competence in learners.
In the present study, I evaluated whether ESL teachers could teach students three reading metacognitive strategies (planning, monitoring, and evaluating) and whether improving knowledge of these strategies would improve their reading comprehension. According to the research findings and in light of the hypotheses, two conclusions come to the surface. First, although the teacher, not the researcher, taught the three strategies, and the students might have learned these strategies in their first language, the subjects’ metacognitive knowledge increased on the three MARSI reading scales. Thus, teachers can effectively teach metacognitive strategies. Second, an increase in metacognitive knowledge does not necessarily lead to improvement of reading comprehension. A reading intervention of planning, monitoring, and evaluating is not always strongly linked to improving readers’ comprehension due to other variables or factors such as sample size, duration of training, research design, and students’ motivation.
THE INSIDER: A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE FOR EFL TEACHERS IN READING, VOCABULARLY & STUDY SKILLS attempts to present succinctly and clearly the reading, vocabulary, and study skills that teachers need to help their students develop their college skills in these three domains. It aims to provide a thorough account of almost all the skills pertinent to the teaching/learning of reading, vocabulary, and study skills. The book has two readerships in mind. The first are college teachers who painstakingly struggle to aid students develop hands-on skills and strategies to become independent learners. The second readership consists of student practitioners who are currently receiving training in becoming teachers of English. The book is intended for those who seek classroom ideas, strategies, and tasks designed to facilitate reading, vocabulary build-up, and better academic supporting skills. This book is not meant for students, and it is not written as a skills book for language practice. Nevertheless, they can learn a lot from reading it. The book can very well serve as a guide for teachers instructing English especially in the three domains it addresses.
Teaching English reading comprehension skills to readers of other languages may be a tough task for many teachers of English. Traditional, teacher- centred methods which emphasises a comprehension- testing model and have been widely used in school environments where English is used as a lingual franca or a shared language of communication may not be an answer to facilitating proficient EFL readers. This book showcases a ground-breaking teaching method implemented in a quasi-experimental study which provided a successful proof of helping to raise the English reading comprehension skills of tertiary student readers. In the study, a programme of strategy training intervention was introduced to an experimental cohort using strategies-based instruction and a control cohort using teacher- fronted methods. Derived from various instruments employed,the results pointed to the fact that strategies-based instruction can be a better alternative for teaching English L2 or EFL reading comprehension.
Interest in the role vocabulary plays as a mechanism to predict reading ability has been emphasized by many researchers due to the impact an inadequate vocabulary may have on EFL students’ reading performance. Vocabulary load during reading can be so heavy that it interferes with text comprehension; hence, failure to identify unknown words and decode them within a text may be problematic. This descriptive case study sought to examine vocabulary identification strategy use during reading. The data came from two sources: answers to questions in a comprehension guide and in-depth interviews. Data analysis was carried out through qualitative and quantitative methods. Main findings showed that there were some qualitative differences and a few similarities in text comprehension and word identification across participants, that there were some quantitative differences and similarities in the number and type of strategies used, and that the number and type of strategies used by the participants had an influence on text comprehension and word identification.
All texts, a story and anecdotes for the translation from Spanish into Russian and English and from English into Spanish of the book adapted by foreign words-tips on © Linguistic Rescue method. There are keys for all the texts, a story and anecdotes. In this book I tried to uncover the main difficulties encountered on the way of learning Spanish and English languages, the difficulties which are the reason of the most common mistakes of the students.
Robert Mayer presents a study of correspondences between Walter Scott and socially and culturally diverse readers of his work in the English-speaking world in the early nineteenth century. He explores Scott's original constructions of authorship, reading strategies, and versions of fame in these revealing letters.