This book is the contribution of Ms.Sangheethaa S as part of her Ph.D work. This book explains the Dynamic Source Routing based protocol for Mobile ad-hoc networks. The approach uses mobile agents for finding routes. This book also gives the simulation results done using ns2. This book will be of great help for those who wish to do research in ad-hoc networks and routing protocols of ad-hoc networks. It talks about vulnerabilities of ad-hoc networks and gives more scope for future research in this area.
Intelligent routing protocols became an important scheme to enhance the performance of the routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) also to obtain an efficient operation of these networks by ensuring fast route discovery , fast connectivity , low delay and overhead . This Book presents a novel scheme for MANETs routing protocol known as an Intelligent Ant sense routing protocol (INTANTSENSE). This protocol utilizes a behavior studies of “ants” in nature known as ant colony optimization to perform optimal routing activities . An ant routing concept is a new scheme for routing inspired by the behavior of real ants used in this study. The new protocol (INTANTSENSE) designed and simulated in real MANET environment across a personal area network with IEEE 802.15.4 WPAN and after analysis it displays a satisfactory performances they are optimal path routing, fast route discovery and effective routing failure handling.
Routing is an important function in MANETs. Performance of various Proactive, Reactive and Hybride Routing Protocol have been studied, analyzed and evaluated through the simulations in Network Simulator-2. Early work in routing mainly focussed on providing efficient mechanisms for finding paths in dynamic networks. Security issues were not taken into consideration. Interestingly, designing adequate security schemes for these innovative networks is very challenging. The objective of writing this book are (i) To make the readers aware of the fundamentals of Mobile Ad hoc Networks and its working (ii) To understand the issues and challenges of deployment and maintenance of MANETs (iii) Study, analysed and evaluate performance of proactive, reactive and hybrid routing protocol through the simulations in Network Simulator-2 (iv) Provide a broad and comprehensive overview of the research that has been done to secure AODV routing protocol in design of MANETs and (v) Propose a novel approach to secure AODV routing protocol from insider attacks. This book will be very much useful for Ph.D, Research Scholar and Graduate Students who wish to carry out their research in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.
Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a new type of communication network, which can be used for data communication between groups of mobile nodes using wireless channels. The energy constraints, poor protection of nodes in a hostile environment, and the vulnerability of security schemes have been identified as challenges for MANETs. The wireless MANETs face a larger security problem than conventional wired and wireless networks. As per recent research trends, Clustering based approach enables mobile node management, security, fault tolerance, network key management and routing in MANETs. Implementation of a secured routing protocol among the nodes of a MANET, while keeping intact the benefits of clustering, is a challenging task. In this dissertation work, we have proposed an approach for secure communication in MANETs using the concept of Clustering. The proposed approach is intended to get benefit of security by means of clustering. This dissertation researches existing routing protocols, clustering based security solutions, examines an existing clustering model, and then proposes a scheme for secure data communication.
Ad hoc mobile devices heavily depend on the performance of batteries. Optimizing the power consumption is a very crucial issue. To maximize the lifetime of mobile ad hoc network, the power consumption rate of each node must be reduced. In this paper we present a novel energy efficient routing algorithm based on mobile agents to deal with the routing mechanism in the energy-critical environments. A few mobile agents move in the network and communicate with each node. They collect the network information to build the global information matrix of nodes. The routing algorithm chooses a shortest path of all nodes in all possible routes. Additionally, we compare the performance of power-relation routing protocol DSR (Dynamic Source Routing)in simulation environment. The results show that the survivability of Ad Hoc network has been better because of less energy consumption when usingour improved DSR as compare to standard DSR protocol.
In spite of its attractive features, the shift from “traditional” networking to Mobile Ad-hoc Networking gives rise to several challenging problems. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) inherit all the traditional problems of wireless and mobile communications, such as bandwidth optimization, power control and transmission quality enhancement. In addition, the multihop nature and the lack of fixed infrastructure bring new issues such as device discovery, network configuration, fault tolerance, scalability, topology maintenance and Ad-hoc addressing. In the last years, many multipath routing protocols have been proposed, but they are not scalable as they use static addressing. To solve the scalability problem, many DHT based protocols were proposed but most of them are singlepath. So they are not fault tolerant against link failures.
Mobile Ad-Hoc Network is an autonomous system of Mobile nodes connected by wireless links. The performance of different routing protocols are evaluated in different scenario with TCP Variants. It is necessary to consider Transmission Control Protocol as well for MANETs because of its wide application, which enjoys the advantage of reliable data transmission in the Internet. In this book conclusion are drawn based on the simulation results and the comparisons between them have been elaborated.
An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. There are number of routing protocols developed by researchers. Due to the nature of ad hoc networks, secure routing is an important area of research in developing secured routing protocols. Although researchers have proposed several secure routing protocols, the evaluation results of these protocols refer that they do not give complete protection against possible attacks and have some disadvantages on their performance.In this book, I examined a new routing protocol called Weight-Based AODV (WBAODV)routing protocol which is efficient and superior of the standard AODV routing protocol in performance, but is not secure. So I proposed a new secure routing protocol based on WBAODV which will be efficient and also immune against the most commonly possible routing attacks. Finally I analyzed the proposed protocol against many attacks to ensure its security and also subject it to extensive simulation tests with the most commonly well-known ad hoc performance metrics to ensure its efficiency.
Secure routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) has emerged as an important MANET research area. Existing works in MANET focused mainly on the problem of providing efficient mechanisms for finding paths in very dynamic networks, without considering the security of the routing process. This work proposes a secure routing protocol after an in-depth evaluation and performance analysis of MANET protocols, and security.
Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET), an infrastructure-less, autonomous, standalone and self organizing network is one of the wireless technologies gaining popularity. It can be deployed in almost any environment with ease and flexibility. But it is constrained by limited wireless coverage and limited connectivity. The integration of MANET routing protocols with IP protocol makes Internet connectivity to the MANET nodes a plausible task. Due to the different architectural mismatches between the Internet and MANETs with regard to their communication topology, routing protocols, and operation, it becomes necessary to introduce an intermediate entity known as Gateway, capable of connecting to the Internet using mobile IP and to MANET using an ad hoc routing protocol. Mobile IP agents or access points are placed at the edge of the Internet to aid the MANET nodes realize multi-hop wireless Internet access. The important issues for providing Internet connectivity for ad hoc networks includes reduction of the mobile IP overhead,routing protocol overhead, improving the packet delivery ratio, gateway connectivity ratio and reducing the end-end delay & providing global connectivity.
Providing a convenient routing protocol for MANETs is a challenge because of the dynamic topology. Therefore, the suitability of each routing protocol depends on many parameters such as, network size, node mobility speed, andtraffic load. All that, together with the dynamic nature of MANETs, made an optimum routing protocol selection a complicated task. Extensive nodal mobility of MANETs makes multi-hop routinga genuine challenge. The frequent topology changes and variable propagation conditions make a routing table obsolete very quickly, whichresults in enormous control overhead for route discovery and maintenance. In this book we develop and present a new hybrid routing protocol called Multipath Distance VectorZone Routing Protocol, which is referred to as MDVZRP. In MDVZRP we assume that all the routes in the routing table are active and usable at anytime, unless the node received or discovered a broken link. There is no need to periodicallyupdate the routing tables, therefore reducing the periodic update messages and hence reducing the control traffic in the entire network. The protocol guarantees loop freedom and alternative disjoint paths.
Mobile ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are well-liked networks in all types of wireless networks. To transfer data in Mobile ad-hoc Networks, widely used protocol is Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). A field which plays very important role in data transfer is “Hop limit” which is applied in each Route Request message of DSR. It controls the propagation of Route Request according to a specific value which is mentioned in Time-to-Live (TTL) portion of IP header.
Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) encompass mobile devices such as laptops, tablets, handhelds, phones, that use wireless transmission technologies for access of information from anywhere any time. These networks can be formed by a group of ad hoc nodes irrespective of time and location, without any infrastructure and having no central control. Provisioning of on-demand Quality of Service (QoS) to the mobile users is a major challenge in this network. This book discusses ad hoc networks starting from the basic concepts to its issues, QoS parameters, their evaluation methods, QoS provisioning mechanisms, and challenges with an emphasis to channel allocation, routing, and multicasting. Performance analysis of well known ad hoc routing protocols such as DSDV, DSR and AODV with varying network conditions provides an idea of selecting suitable routing protocol for better QoS to the Mobile Hosts (MH) in MANETs. Application of VGA for channel allocation and MOO for QoS multicasting are the major contributed models in this book. This book will be helpful for postgraduate students as well as for research scholars, especially using ns-2 simulator for modelling and testing protocols in MANETs.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a decentralized, multi-hop, and dynamic network with least infrastructure. Therefore, it is necessary that they should be self organizing, self healing, self configuring and adaptable to frequent changes in network. Ant Colony Optimization presents a problem-solving paradigm that suits the dynamicity and mobility of mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper we propose a new routing algorithm AntHocNet-LS(equipped with Location Service) inspired from AntHocNet which rely on simple mobile agents and their collective intelligence for the task of routing. The algorithm performs better in major performance parameters such as packet delivery ratio and control overhead.
In this research work, a secure routing protocol for MANET is designed with countermeasures to reduce or eliminate different types of security vulnerabilities and attacks. This thesis provides routing security to the Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol by eliminating the threat of Black Hole attack, Rushing attack, Wormhole attack and Impersonation attack. The proposed solutions are tested using Global Mobile system Simulator (GloMoSim), a scalable public domain network simulator. The performance is studied for various routing parameters such as packet delivery ratio; routing overhead and average end - to - end delay and are compared with the AODV. The simulation results show that the proposed solutions improve the security and packet delivery performance with lesser overhead and delay and are well suited for network with high mobility.