Tomato is one of the valuable fruit which belongs to the family Solanaceae. People use tomato in various forms like canned tomato paste, tomato juices, tomato ketchup and tomato sauce. Due to increasing standards of living in the cities and the rapid urbanization taking place in the rural areas, consumption of tomato based products is expected to go up steadily. During present study canned tomato paste was irradiated to increase the shelf life. Canned tomato paste was irradiated at two different doses i.e. 1 and 3 kGy. The results of proximate analysis i.e. moisture content, ash content, fat content, carbohydrate content and TSS content were compared with the control sample which was not irradiated. 3kGy dose was considered as an optimized dose after comparing results with reported articles. During 1st week moisture content in canned tomato paste sample radiated with dose 3 kGy was 22g100-1g, ash 2.65 g100-1g, TSS 1.9 brix %, protein 0.1 g100-1g, fat 0 g100-1g and carbohydrate 75.25 g100-1g. During 3rd week moisture content in canned tomato paste sample radiated with dose 3 kGy was 11 g100-1g, ash 2.29 g100-1g, TSS 0.87 brix %, protein 0.06 g100-1g and carbohydrate 94 g100-1g.
In Nigeria, tomato is mainly cultivated in the northern part of the country where it forms an important part of the farming systems. The growth of tomato production depends on the need to improvement in either in productivity or through area expansion. The increase in tomato production in Nigeria is mainly contributed by expansion of area. The productivity growth may be achieved through either technological progress or efficiency improvement . Several studies indicated that the existing low levels of technical efficiency hinder efforts to achieve progress in production . Despite the significant growth in tomato production, there is huge inefficiency in the production system of tomato production. An improvement in the efficiency of production system will have direct positive impact on agricultural growth, nutritional security and rural livelihood in a country like Nigeria, where tomato is one of the major crops.
This book deals with the following topic viz. Introduction, Review of literature, Material and methods, Results, Discussion, Summary, conclusion and suggestion for further work, References and the object of the research was To study molecular variability among 21 isolates of Rhizoctonia bataticola, and to find out source of resistance in soybean against charcoal rot. this work is pioneer for the study in soybean diseases in Soya state (MP).
Томатная маска Beauty in a Food Mask Sheet Tomato питает и осветляет кожу лица, выравнивает общий тон и цвет, обладает отбеливающими свойствами, дарит коже естественное, здоровое сияние. Маска выполнена из чистого 100% хлопка, обеспечивает плотное прилегание к коже лица, не допуская проникновение воздуха между кожей и тканевой основой маски. Тканевая маска с экстрактом томата оказывает активное антиоксидантное действие на клеточном уровне, выравнивает цвет лица, придавая ему здоровый, сияющий вид, освежает уставшую и тусклую кожу, насыщает кожу лица натуральными полезными веществами. ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ: Тщательно умыться привычным средством, подсушить кожу полотенцем и аккуратно нанести на лицо ткань маски, пропитанную активной сывороткой, выдержать 20-25 минут. Во время процедуры расслабить мышцы лица и не заниматься активными делами для достижения лучшего результата.
House flies are major pests of agriculture and public health. Globally, imidacloprid is formulated as bait for house fly control. However, there have been reports of both physiological and behavioral resistance to imidacloprid. Surveys in California and Florida in the United States determined physiological resistance to imidacloprid, yet there has been no study to characterize resistance in house flies from this region. This book is an investigation of this resistance. Three laboratory imidacloprid selections of a strain obtained from Florida increased resistance, creating a strain 2,300-fold and 130-fold resistant in females and males, respectively. Resistance was unstable, declined over time, and synergistic. Treatment with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) could not suppress imidacloprid resistance, indicating cytochrome P450s detoxification does not confer resistance. There was ?100-fold cross-resistance to acetamiprid and dinotefuran, but none to spinosad. Resistance mapped to autosomes 3 and 4. This study discusses the significance of these results to practical imidacloprid resistance management, and the potential resistance mechanisms involved.
The cultivated tomato is an extremely popular and versatile vegetable crop. Bangladesh has a huge population with small land mass, which is also most vulnerable to environmental disaster due to climate change. In order to improve productivity, we need salt, flood and draught tolerant varieties, so that we can maximize our land utilization. Tomato production can be hampered by various biotic and abiotic factors,various transgenic approaches have been proved to improve tomato crop. Establishment of tissue culture protocol is a prerequisite for Agrobacterium mediated transformation experiments. This book reports a reliable and reproducible in vitro regeneration protocol avoiding complex media combination, which were developed for four local varieties. Tomato transformation efficiency is highly dependent on various transformation factors which were optimized during the present study and an efficient transformation protocol for these varieties is also reported. This book will be very helpful for the researchers interested in developing transgenic tomato for both abiotic and biotic factors or in bio-farming like production of vaccines, antibodies etc.
Micro irrigation is the frequent application of small quantities of water on or below the soil surface as drops,tiny streams or miniature sprays through emitters or applicators placed along a water delivery lateral line.Micro irrigation technologies are adopted worldwide in wide variety of crops viz, fruits and orchard crops, vegetables, flowers, commercial field crops, tuber & bulb crops, plantation crops, spices and condiments, forestry, nurseries, landscapes etc.Marginal quality waters like saline water and agro- industry effluents are also being used successfully with drip irrigation for raising several crops.This study analyse the economics of drip irrigation in cotton and tomato crops in chithoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India.It makes a comparative economic analysis of drip irrigated cotton and tomato crop with conventional-flood irrigation.The study revealed that in farmers fields adopting drip irrigation crops experienced favourable soil water balance in the crop root zone resulting in optimal soil water plant relations, nutrient availability, improved weed control and in turn contributed to higher yield in cotton and tomato crops over conventional-flood irrigation.
Cockroaches are one of the most serious food and residual pest throughout the world. Heavy infestation of cockroaches can be effectively managed by chemical control measures but these insects are getting resistance against various groups of insecticides. In this book insecticide resistance status of cockroaches against commonly used insecticides has been described. Levels of insecticide detoxifying enzymes among different populations of study areas have also been compared. The information provided in this book will be helpful in future for management of insecticide resistance in these insects.
The present investigations on early blight (Alternaria solani) disease of tomato was conducted during 2014 and 2015 at Plant Pathology Department, Seed and Tissue Pathology Lab (SEPA), Central Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Mansoura University, Egypt. Three concentrations of biodegradable lubricant 55, 110 and 220 µg/mlfor petroleum wastes were resulted from two biodegradable isolates (First is white rot fungi Phanerochaetechrysosporium and the second is bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens NRRL 340) were tested to against early blight (Alternaria solani) disease of tomato in vitro and in vivo. This study recommended that application of 220 µg/ml, completely reduced mycelial growth, spore germination and germ tube length of the fungus A. solani(Al-TawfiqiyahBadr isolates). Also showed highly effect of biodegradable lubricant at 220 µg/ml in reduction of disease incidence, disease severity and greatly affect chemical analysis, growth parameters and yield.
As very little information is known of the antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria in Libya in addition to the desperate need for insight knowledge of the antibiotic resistance in Libyan hospitals, this study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism of antibiotic resistance in isolates collected from clinical, non-clinical and environmental samples from Tripoli and Benghazi, Libya. Bacterial collection include samples taken from patients admitted to the hospitals in ICUs and other wards, they also include swabs randomly collected from hospitals environment. This study clearly demonstrates the emergence of MDR Gram-negative bacteria in Tripoli and Benghazi hospitals, these MDR bacteria were clinical and non-clinical revealing the long standing infection control problem in these hospitals. Perhaps the most interesting finding of this study is blaTMB-1 which was detected in environmental strain swabbed from the floor of Tripoli central hospital. This MBL was unusual in terms of the similarity this gene shares with other known MBLs and also to the discovery of this MBL carried by environmental bacteria A. xylosoxidans, it is moreover the first MBL discovered in Libya.