The study was conducted on the insecticide-resistance-management of the tomato fruit-borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner), employing a bio-intensive integrated management strategy on the tomato crop in Pakistan. The study comprised of 1) Host Plant Resistance, 2) Role of weather factors in the population fluctuations, 3) Contribution of physio-morphic and chemical plant-characters, in the population fluctuation of the pest, 4)Bio-intensive IPM of the pest. The study was conducted to integrate various control methods, viz., biological control (release of Chrysoperla carnea and Bracon hebetor,), botanical control (spray of neem-seed kernel extract, Neemosol), chemical control (spinosad, Tracer 240 SC) and bacterial control (Bacillus thuringiensis) alone and in all of their possible interactions for the management of Helicoverpa armigera, on the tomato crop, during 2008. An Integration of B. thuringiensis + tracer + B. hebetor + neemosol and C. carnea, resulted in a maximum yield , lowest larval population of H. armigera and minimum infestation of marketable tomato fruits. This treatment, as such, proved to be the best & highly profitable.
In this book presents a critical review on tomatoes for research and development findings integrated from these areas of investigation. As has already been studied that tomato is known as a rich crop for their genetic background, nutritional, medicinal and commercial value throughout the world. Accepting to these importance a little resistant source are available in tomato for biotic & abiotic stresses. Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) is a serious disease for tomato production with substantial yield losses. Production of tomato can be enhanced either by screening of resistant varieties or by inserting resistance gene against ToLCV through traditional breeding or molecular breeding programme. Here discussed about screening and breeding concepts as well as use of molecular markers for identification of resistant sources. Here also explained about introgression of wild species for further improvements of resistant varieties. We also expect that this book will be of valuable reference for students, scientists and researchers in genetics and molecular breeding for tomato crop.
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a major tomato virus in Ghana and Africa as a whole. In this study, 30 accessions of Solanum lycopersicum L. with reported TYLCV- resistance from AVRDC were assessed for resistance to TYLCV in Ghana. Plants were grown in a field, a hot spot of the disease and the reactions of plants were evaluated based on the disease symptoms when they were 30, 45 and 60 days after transplanting. Molecular screening was also done to re-confirm the phenotypic evaluation. All the tomato accessions demonstrated various degrees of disease symptoms. Phenotypic evaluation was confirmed by amplification of TYLCV DNA fragment in all tested accessions. Based on both the phenotypic and molecular evaluations, no accession provided complete resistance to TYLCV in Ghana. However accessions with milder symptoms of TYLCV in the field but no viral DNA were assessed as tolerant.
Diseases caused by geminiviruses which are transmitted by whiteflies, leafhoppers or treehoppers greatly affect the yield of infected crops leading to enormous economic loss. The diseases have been so serious to their host crops that novel combating methods need to be developed in order to contain them. The discovery of RNAi, especially the microRNA (miR) mechanism, has opened a new era for plant virus combat since amiRs have been implicated as useful candidates to silence genes of agricultural interests. And transgenic plants harboring artificial miRs (amiRs) have shown brilliant promises of virus resistance. As the pre-coat (AV2) protein is also a candidate RNAi suppressor encoded by a geminivirus, Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) and overlaps with the coat protein gene AV1, in the present study, we sought to investigate whether the AV2-amiR strategy could be extended further in a similar manner to achieve broad spectrum resistance against ToLCVs. We designed and applied amiRs for targeting the AV1 and AV2 genes of ToLCV and generated tomato transgenic lines which would over express the amiRs. These lines were then used for testing ToLCV resistance under glass-house conditions.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the second most consumed vegetable worldwide. Commercial cultivation of tomato is usually affected by the lack of resistance and is susceptible to grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). B. cinerea is an economically important tomato disease in temperate and subtropical regions. Many classes of fungicides have failed to control B. cinerea due to its genetic plasticity. However, partial resistance to this fungus has been identified in accessions of wild relatives of tomato such as Solanum habrochaites. Therefore, introgession lines (ILs) have been developed in order to use the wild genetic resources. IL contains a single defined chromosome segment from the donor species into a uniform genetic background (Zamir, 2001). The resistance of tomato plant against B. cinerea can be improved by an enhanced formation of S-containing defense compounds,i.e. Sulfur enhanced defense. Resistance ILs for B. cinerea attack were identified. The resistance of these ILs have enhanced with additional Sulfur supply. The findings in this book is very important for those people who are highly interested to understand the role of plant nutrients on disease resistance (Habtamu, 2012).
Tomato is one of the most popular vegetable throughout the world, and the importance of its cultivation is threatened by a wide array of pathogens. In the last twenty years this plant has been successfully used as a model plant to investigate the induction of defense pathways after exposure to fungal, bacterial and abiotic molecules, showing triggering of different mechanisms of resistance. Understanding these mechanisms in order to improve crop protection is a main goal for Plant Pathology. The aim of this study was to search for general or race-specific molecules able to determine in Solanum lycopersicon immune responses attributable to the main systems of plant defense: non-host, host-specific and induced resistance. To conclude this work, race-specific resistance of tomato against the leaf mold Cladosporium fulvum is also deepened, describing the project followed at the Phytopathology Laboratory of Wageningen (NL), dealing with localization of a specific R-Avr interaction in transfected tomato protoplast cultures through fluorescence microscopy.
Bud blight is an emerging viral problem in tomato. Bud blight affected plants reacted positively to polyclonal antiserum of Groundnut Bud necrosis Virus (N gene). TN-Co, UP-Ka, MH-Pu and MH-Ra isolates could infect 13 out of 27 plant species tested belonging to Solanaceae, Leguminoase and Malvaceae. The nucleocapsid protein (N) and movement protein (NSm) genes were cloned and sequenced using GBNV specific primers. N gene of the tomato Tospovirus isolates shared 97-100% amino acid sequence identity with GBNV (type isolate). Further the N gene among GBNV isolates originating from tomato and other hosts and different locations was highly conserved (96-99%), suggesting their common origin. Similarly the NSm genes of tomato Tospovirus isolates from different locations shared 98% amino acid sequence identity with GBNV (type isolate) and were highly conserved (96-98%). N gene from GBNV TN-Co isolate was used as transgene to confer resistance in tomato. Nine transgenic lines Co3S1, Co3S2, Co3S12, PRS1, PRS3, PRA1, PRA2, PRA4 and PRA5 were Southern positive. None of the T0 lines showed symptoms upon mechanical inoculation with TN-Co isolate
Root-knot nematodes severely attack tomato resulting in severe yield losses. Estimate of tomato crop losses in Tropical Africa due to the pest range from 24-38%. Employment of nematicides is an effective control option but their high cost, assault on the environment and food safety issues negate their patronage. The most practical alternative to the use of nematicides is the use of host-resistance. It is feasible to multiply a resistant or tolerant variety identified for supply to resource-challenged peasant farmers to increase tomato production in developing countries. Six resistant tomato cultivars - FLA 505-BL 1172, 2641A, Adwoa deede, Terminator FI, Tima and 2644A, identified in the molecular screening correlated well with their phenotypes in field and pot experiments. This monograph stands to benefit farmers, agricultural researchers, extension agents and students.
Tomato [(Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) Wetted] is one of the most important vegetable crops grown in India. However, modern cultivars of tomato have a limited genetic diversity further the demand for high yielding disease resistant hybrids is alarming. In this study an effort was made to increase genetic variability for development of ToLCV resistant high yielding varieties and hybrids by utilizing exotic tomato breeding lines. Diversity analysis of 19 exotic tomato breeding lines and popular varieties viz., Pusa Ruby (P20), Vaibhav (P21) and Arka-Vikas (P22) was made with the D2 analysis, PCA, RAPD and SRAP markers, which revealed that exotic lines are diverse from popular varieties. Nineteen exotic tomato breeding lines and cultivars viz., P20, P21 and P22 were crossed in line x tester design to assess the combining ability and heterosis. A perusal of the results indicated that P21 x PT4227A, P22 x CLN2123E, P21 x CLN2768A, P21 x CLN2777F, P21 x CLN2400B, P22 x CLN2460E, P22 x CLN2777B, P20 x CLN2498E and P20 x CLN2777F showed significant heterosis over the best check hybrid. Further these hybrids could be used to develop mapping population and breeding for hybrid development.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) belongs to family Solanaceae. Tomato crop grown under controlled conditions is a preferred production method now a days. Better fruit quality and yield can be achieved not only through modifying environmental conditions but with an equal management of nutrients supply particularly Ca and Mg, which are reported to be associated with certain physiological disorders.The present study was conducted to examine the effect of different foliar treatments of Ca and Mg in tomato fruit quality.statistically analyzed data at both pre harvest & post harvest stages thoroughly concluded that calcium containing sprays prove most effective in the uptake of growth, fruit quality and shelf life of tomatoes. This book, therefore, provide basic knowledge to the learners, tomato growers and farming community to know about the effectiveness of foliar containing Ca and Mg supply on tomato fruit quality.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is important vegetable crop and is highly susceptible to early blight disease caused by Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici. The pathogen leads to severe destruction of the tomatoplants. Since long back, several techniques such as cultural practices, chemical controland biological control have been tried to combat the disease, but none of these proved satisfactory for conventional agriculture.With these limitations, it has been tried to induce the resistance in plants utilizingtheir own defense mechanism(s). The concept of induced resistance can be defined asheightened resistance in a plant towards pathogen (s) as a result of pre treatment witha pathogen, an attenuated pathogen, or a non-pathogen or with a chemical that is notitself pesticide. Recently, this system has established a great deal of considerationbecause of the increased concern for eco-friendly environment, increased limitationson the use of chemical pesticides and the increased cost of developing, and marketable products. In this study, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria have beenrecognized as one of the most promising resistance inducing agents.
Tomato is an important vegetable grown all over the world because of its dietary, nutritional and medicinal values. It is damaged by a variety of insect pests especially tomato aphids and tomato fruif borer which are considered as limiting factor in the production of this vegetable. The work presented in the book was focused on the seasonal occurrence of aphid and tomato fruit borer on different cultivar of tomato and to find out the host plant resistance in relation to abiotic factors such as maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall on different cultivars of tomato viz., Raja, Nagra-1077, Red hero hybrid and Rao phego against tomato aphids and tomato fruit borer.
Data available have shown that domestic tomato production seems to be decreasing gradually in volume of production and in its percentage contribution to the national tomato supply in the era of higher imports of tomato. As an important traded commodity, this study, therefore, identifies the determinants of farmers’ seasonal tomato production decisions. Results indicate that as seasons approached the dry season, farmers using any irrigation technology tend to cultivate lower farmland to tomato when in fact, they should increase production to take advantage of comparatively higher tomato prices that occur during the dry season. It was also realized that as farmers acquire additional farmland for crop production, they are likely to reduce the level of tomato cultivation. This could mean that farmers are only surviving the cultivation of tomato as they are unlikely to increase its cultivation. The study then presents some recommendations.
In this study, various cost items related to cost of cultivation of tomato are examined. These are cost of labour, cost of ploughing, cost of seedling, cost of manure & fertilizer, cost of irrigation, cost of insecticide & pesticide, and miscellaneous expenses. These are productive costs. The non productive cost is interest on working capital. It has been found that the most expensive items are noted to be charges for hired labour, cost of manures and fertilizers. & cost of plant protection chemicals. Cost of bullock labour (hired and own), and irrigation charges follows them. Marketing margin and price spread in the wholesale as well as in the retail market have been studied separately in Nagarukhra and Kolkata market. The study reveals that wide and random seasonal fluctuations in monthly wholesale prices prevail in the market throughout the year. Major items of marketing cost of tomato are transport, packing, loading and unloading, helping hands, storage, spoilage rents and maintenance. It is seen that transport is highest among various cost items.
This book is of significance for both tomato growers and researchers interested in studying diseases that infect tomatoes.As it sheds light on spotting bacterial disease of tomato in terms of its importance, the extent of its spread in Egypt, and the sensitivity of different tomato cultivars for infection with this disease. As well as studying the biochemical effects in tomato plants resulting from infection, and pathological and molecular diversity between different isolates of the pathogen. One of the most important parts contained in this book is how to control the disease by using chemicals, induced resistance and biological control to reduce the damage it causes.