Epigenetics is a term in biology referring to heritable traits that do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. Epigenetic traits exist on top of or in addition to the traditional molecular basis for inheritance. The «epigenome» is a parallel to the word «genome,» and refers to the overall epigenetic state of a cell. Cancer and stem cell research have gradually focused attention on these genome modifications. The molecular basis of epigenetics involves modifications to DNA and the chromatin proteins that associate with it. Methylation, for example, can silence a nearby gene and seems to be involved in some cancers. Epigenetics is beginning to form and take shape as a new scientific discipline, which will have a major impact on Medicine and essentially all fields of biology. Increasingly, researchers are unearthing links between epigenetics and a number of diseases. Although in recent years cancer has been the main focus of epigenetics, recent data suggests that epigenetic plays a critical role in psychology and psychopathology. It is being realized that normal behaviors such as maternal care and pathologies such as Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's might have an epigenetic basis. It is also becoming clear that nutrition and life experiences have epigenetic consequences. Discover more online content in the Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine.
Epigenetics is the study of both heritable and non-heritable changes in the regulation of gene activity and expression that occur without an alteration in the DNA sequence. This dynamic and rapidly developing discipline is making its impact across the biomedical sciences, in particular in toxicology where epigenetic differences can mean that different individuals respond differently to the same drug or chemical. Toxicology and Epigenetics reflects the multidimensional character of this emerging area of toxicology, describing cutting-edge molecular technologies to unravel epigenetic changes, the use of in vivo and in vitro models, as well as the potential use of toxicological epigenetics in regulatory environments. An international team of experts consider the interplay between epigenetics and toxicology in a number of areas, including environmental, nutritional, pharmacological, and computational toxicology, nanomaterials, proteomics and metabolomics, and cancer research. Topics covered include: environment, epigenetics and diseases DNA methylation and toxicogenomics chromatin at the intersection of disease and therapy epigenomic actions of environmental arsenicals environment, epigenetics and cardiovascular health toxicology, epigenetics and autoimmunity ocular epigenomics: potential sites of environmental impact in development and disease nuclear RNA silencing and related phenomena in animals epigenomics – impact for drug safety sciences methods of global epigenomic profiling transcriptomics: applications in epigenetic toxicology Toxicology and Epigenetics is an essential insight into the current trends and future directions of research in this rapidly expanding field for investigators, toxicologists, risk assessors and regulators in academia, industry and government.
Based on one of the leading encyclopedic resources in cell and molecular biology worldwide, this two-volume work contains more than 75% new content, not previously published in the Encyclopedia. All the other chapters have been carefully updated. The result is a comprehensive overview of the different functions of the various forms of RNA in living organisms, with each contributor carefully selected and an internationally recognized expert on his or her field. Special focus is on the different forms of expression regulation through RNA, with medical applications in the treatment of diseases – from cancers and immune responses to infections and aging – covered in detail. At least 45 of the 55 articles are new content previously not published in the Encyclopedia.
Systems biology is a relatively new biological study field that focuses on the systematic study of complex interactions in biological systems, thus using a new perspective (integration instead of reduction) to study them. Particularly from year 2000 onwards, the term is used widely in the biosciences, and in a variety of contexts. Systems biology is the study of the interconnected aspect of molecular, cellular, tissue, whole animal and ecological processes, and comprises mathematical and mechanistic studies of dynamical, mesoscopic, open, spatiotemporally defined, nonlinear, complex systems that are far from thermodynamic equilibrium.
These two volumes contain a selection of updated articles from the acclaimed Meyers Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, the most authoritative resource in cell and molecular biology, combined with new articles by «founding fathers» in the field. The work is divided into six sections: + Biological Basis + Modeling + Modular Parts and Circuits + Synthetic Genomes + Diseases and Therapeutics + Chemicals Production. Ideally suited as advanced reading for students and postdocs, and with all current research trends covered by an impressive number of leading figures in the field, this is the first choice reference for research institutions.
This publication is perhaps the first one to document the impact of density regulation (a class of development regulations) on urban land and housing markets. It provides insights of land use regulation impacts in general and development density regulation impacts in particular. It is useful to policy makers, planners, academicians and professionals concerned with urban policy and planning. It will be a more valuable reading material to those concerned with cities, land use planning and land markets in developing countries.
Code of Federal Regulations Title 12, Volume 2, January 1, 2017 contains regulations governing Banks and Banking and may also be referenced as:- Code of Federal Regulations Title 12, Volume 2, January 1, 2017- CFR Title 12- CFR 12, Banks and Banking- CFR 12, Parts 200 to 219, Banks and BankingThis volume contains Parts 200 to 219:- Part 200; Reserved- Part 201; EXTENSIONS OF CREDIT BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS (REGULATION A)- Part 202; EQUAL CREDIT OPPORTUNITY ACT (REGULATION B)- Part 203; HOME MORTGAGE DISCLOSURE (REGULATION C)- Part 204; RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D)- Part 205; ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E)- Part 206; LIMITATIONS ON INTERBANK LIABILITIES (REGULATION F)- Part 207; DISCLOSURE AND REPORTING OF CRA-RELATED AGREEMENTS (REGULATION G)- Part 208; MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H)- Part 209; ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I)- Part 210; COLLECTION OF CHECKS AND OTHER ITEMS BY FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS AND FUNDS TRANSFERS THROUGH FEDWIRE (REGULATION J)- Part 211; INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K)- Part 212; MANAGEMENT OFFICIAL INTERLOCKS- Part 213; CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M)- Part 214; RELATIONS WITH FOREIGN BANKS AND BANKERS (REGULATION N)- Part 215; LOANS TO EXECUTIVE OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, AND PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS OF MEMBER BANKS (REGULATION O)- Part 216; Reserved- Part 217; CAPITAL ADEQUACY OF BANK HOLDING COMPANIES, ...
The first complete overview of progress in the field. The two volumes contain selected articles from the prestigious online Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, fully updated and enriched with numerous new contributions from many eminent scientists. Divided into three parts, the first gives a thorough introduction to cancer biology, while Part Two covers therapeutic approaches for all major forms of cancer, and the third part deals with cancer diagnostics. The result is a one-stop resource for advanced students, postdoctoral researchers and start-up companies.
This third in the Current Topics in Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine Series contains a careful selection of new and updated, high-quality articles from the well-known Meyer's Encyclopedia, describing new perspectives in stem cell research. The 26 chapters are divided into four sections: Basic Biology, Stem Cells and Disease, Stem Cell Therapy Approaches, and Laboratory Methods, with the authors chosen from among the leaders in their respective fields. This volume represents an essential guide for students and researchers seeking an overview of the field.
Why U.S. corporate governance regulation has lost its way, and what must be done to improve it Modern history persuasively demonstrates the inexorable link that binds comprehensive regulation to the global economy. This important book, rather than simply recount a litany of corporate governance failures, persuasively explains why, despite policymakers' best intentions, regulation has failed in the modern era. An objective study intended for a diverse readership, Corporate Governance Regulation unveils the underlying, root causes of regulatory failure. The result: A compelling and original analysis, broadly suited for a global audience of all backgrounds. Written by published, subject-area experts, the authors carefully delineate how U.S. corporate governance regulation, beginning with Sarbanes Oxley, lacks an adequate rational basis, as may be attributed to a non-existent policy dialogue The witnessed result: A conspicuous lack of regulatory efficacy, enormous costs, coupled with paltry benefits The focus is upon reigniting a stalled, non-productive policy dialogue, by eschewing stale, overly-polemicized arguments, as needed to develop a common ground Drawing from an eclectic, analytic framework, governance experts Nicholas Vakkur and Zulma Herrera offer both the professional and global citizen alike a multi-dimensional understanding of issues critical to global economic health. Nuanced and persuasively argued, Corporate Governance Regulation represents a formidable catalyst in the elusive, ongoing quest for global economic stability.
Code of Federal Regulations Title 12, Volume 4, January 1, 2017 contains regulations governing Banks and Banking and may also be referenced as:- Code of Federal Regulations Title 12, Volume 4, January 1, 2017- CFR Title 12- CFR 12, Banks and Banking- CFR 12, Parts 230 to 299, Banks and BankingThis volume contains Parts 230 to 299:- Part 230; Reserved- Part 231; NETTING ELIGIBILITY FOR FINANCIAL INSTITUTION (REGULATION EE)- Part 232; OBTAINING AND USING MEDICAL INFORMATION IN CONNECTION WITH CREDIT (REGULATION FF)- Part 233; PROHIBITION ON FUNDING OF UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING (REGULATION GG)- Part 234; DESIGNATED FINANCIAL MARKET UTILITIES (REGULATION HH)- Part 235; DEBIT CARD INTERCHANGE FEES AND ROUTING- Part 237; SWAPS MARGIN AND SWAPS PUSH-OUT- Part 238; SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION LL)- Part 239; MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION MM)- Part 240; RETAIL FOREIGN EXCHANGE TRANSACTIONS (REGULATION NN)- Part 241; SECURITIES HOLDING COMPANIES (REGULATION OO)- Part 242; DEFINITIONS RELATING TO TITLE I OF THE DODD-FRANK ACT (REGULATION PP)- Part 243; RESOLUTION PLANS- Part 244; CREDIT RISK RETENTION (REGULATION RR)- Part 246; SUPERVISION AND REGULATION ASSESSMENTS OF FEES (REGULATION TT)- Part 248; PROPRIETARY TRADING AND CERTAIN INTERESTS IN AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH COVERED FUNDS- Part 249; LIQUIDITY RISK MEASUREMENT STANDARDS (REGULATION WW)- Part 250; MISCELLANEOUS INTERPRETATIONS- Part 251; CONCENTRATION LIMIT (REGULATION XX)- Part 252; ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL ...
Opening with a discussion on the need to integrate self-regulation processes and to create a life-span oriented framework of these processes, this volume explores several perspectives in the current scholarship. Chapter contributors examine theoretical concepts including Vygotsky/Luria Insights in the Development of Executive Functions Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement in Elementary School Children Influences of Children?s and Adolescents? Action-Control Processes on School Achievement, Peer Relationships, and Coping with Challenging Life Events Intentional Self-Regulation, Ecological Assets, and Thriving in Adolescence: A Developmental Systems Model and a Life-Span, Relational, Public Health Model of Self- Regulation: Impact on Individual and Community Health The volume concludes with New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development series editor-in-chief Reed W. Larson discussing the challenges reported by youth working on arts, technology, and social justice projects in organized programs and how they learn to address them. This is the 133nd volume of the Jossey-Bass quarterly report series New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development. The mission of this series is to provide scientific and scholarly presentations on cutting edge issues and concepts in the field of child and adolescent development. Each volume focuses on a specific new direction or research topic, and is edited by an expert or experts on that topic.
Эта книга — репринт оригинального издания, созданный на основе электронной копии высокого разрешения, которую очистили и обработали вручную, сохранив структуру и орфографию оригинального издания. Редкие, забытые и малоизвестные книги, изданные с петровских времен до наших дней, вновь доступны в виде печатных книг.
The first of its kind, this reference gives a comprehensive but concise introduction to epigenetics before covering the many interactions between hormone regulation and epigenetics at all levels. The contents are very well structured with no overlaps between chapters, and each one features supplementary material for use in presentations. Throughout, major emphasis is placed on pathological conditions, aiming at the many physiologists and developmental biologists who are familiar with the importance and mechanisms of hormone regulation but have a limited background in epigenetics.
Featuring case studies and discussion questions, this textbook – with revisions addressing significant changes to US food law – offers accessible coverage appropriate to a wide audience of students and professionals. Overviews the federal statutes, regulations, and regulatory agencies concerned with food regulation and introduces students to the case law and statutory scheme of food regulation Focuses updated content on the 2011 FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), the biggest change to US food law since the 1930s Contains over 20% new material, particularly a rewritten import law chapter and revisions related to food safety regulation, health claims, and food defense Features case studies and discussion questions about application of law, policy questions, and emerging issues