Epigenetics is a term in biology referring to heritable traits that do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. Epigenetic traits exist on top of or in addition to the traditional molecular basis for inheritance. The «epigenome» is a parallel to the word «genome,» and refers to the overall epigenetic state of a cell. Cancer and stem cell research have gradually focused attention on these genome modifications. The molecular basis of epigenetics involves modifications to DNA and the chromatin proteins that associate with it. Methylation, for example, can silence a nearby gene and seems to be involved in some cancers. Epigenetics is beginning to form and take shape as a new scientific discipline, which will have a major impact on Medicine and essentially all fields of biology. Increasingly, researchers are unearthing links between epigenetics and a number of diseases. Although in recent years cancer has been the main focus of epigenetics, recent data suggests that epigenetic plays a critical role in psychology and psychopathology. It is being realized that normal behaviors such as maternal care and pathologies such as Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's might have an epigenetic basis. It is also becoming clear that nutrition and life experiences have epigenetic consequences. Discover more online content in the Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine.
Epigenetics is the study of both heritable and non-heritable changes in the regulation of gene activity and expression that occur without an alteration in the DNA sequence. This dynamic and rapidly developing discipline is making its impact across the biomedical sciences, in particular in toxicology where epigenetic differences can mean that different individuals respond differently to the same drug or chemical. Toxicology and Epigenetics reflects the multidimensional character of this emerging area of toxicology, describing cutting-edge molecular technologies to unravel epigenetic changes, the use of in vivo and in vitro models, as well as the potential use of toxicological epigenetics in regulatory environments. An international team of experts consider the interplay between epigenetics and toxicology in a number of areas, including environmental, nutritional, pharmacological, and computational toxicology, nanomaterials, proteomics and metabolomics, and cancer research. Topics covered include: environment, epigenetics and diseases DNA methylation and toxicogenomics chromatin at the intersection of disease and therapy epigenomic actions of environmental arsenicals environment, epigenetics and cardiovascular health toxicology, epigenetics and autoimmunity ocular epigenomics: potential sites of environmental impact in development and disease nuclear RNA silencing and related phenomena in animals epigenomics – impact for drug safety sciences methods of global epigenomic profiling transcriptomics: applications in epigenetic toxicology Toxicology and Epigenetics is an essential insight into the current trends and future directions of research in this rapidly expanding field for investigators, toxicologists, risk assessors and regulators in academia, industry and government.
Based on one of the leading encyclopedic resources in cell and molecular biology worldwide, this two-volume work contains more than 75% new content, not previously published in the Encyclopedia. All the other chapters have been carefully updated. The result is a comprehensive overview of the different functions of the various forms of RNA in living organisms, with each contributor carefully selected and an internationally recognized expert on his or her field. Special focus is on the different forms of expression regulation through RNA, with medical applications in the treatment of diseases – from cancers and immune responses to infections and aging – covered in detail. At least 45 of the 55 articles are new content previously not published in the Encyclopedia.
Systems biology is a relatively new biological study field that focuses on the systematic study of complex interactions in biological systems, thus using a new perspective (integration instead of reduction) to study them. Particularly from year 2000 onwards, the term is used widely in the biosciences, and in a variety of contexts. Systems biology is the study of the interconnected aspect of molecular, cellular, tissue, whole animal and ecological processes, and comprises mathematical and mechanistic studies of dynamical, mesoscopic, open, spatiotemporally defined, nonlinear, complex systems that are far from thermodynamic equilibrium.
These two volumes contain a selection of updated articles from the acclaimed Meyers Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, the most authoritative resource in cell and molecular biology, combined with new articles by «founding fathers» in the field. The work is divided into six sections: + Biological Basis + Modeling + Modular Parts and Circuits + Synthetic Genomes + Diseases and Therapeutics + Chemicals Production. Ideally suited as advanced reading for students and postdocs, and with all current research trends covered by an impressive number of leading figures in the field, this is the first choice reference for research institutions.
This third in the Current Topics in Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine Series contains a careful selection of new and updated, high-quality articles from the well-known Meyer's Encyclopedia, describing new perspectives in stem cell research. The 26 chapters are divided into four sections: Basic Biology, Stem Cells and Disease, Stem Cell Therapy Approaches, and Laboratory Methods, with the authors chosen from among the leaders in their respective fields. This volume represents an essential guide for students and researchers seeking an overview of the field.
Why U.S. corporate governance regulation has lost its way, and what must be done to improve it Modern history persuasively demonstrates the inexorable link that binds comprehensive regulation to the global economy. This important book, rather than simply recount a litany of corporate governance failures, persuasively explains why, despite policymakers' best intentions, regulation has failed in the modern era. An objective study intended for a diverse readership, Corporate Governance Regulation unveils the underlying, root causes of regulatory failure. The result: A compelling and original analysis, broadly suited for a global audience of all backgrounds. Written by published, subject-area experts, the authors carefully delineate how U.S. corporate governance regulation, beginning with Sarbanes Oxley, lacks an adequate rational basis, as may be attributed to a non-existent policy dialogue The witnessed result: A conspicuous lack of regulatory efficacy, enormous costs, coupled with paltry benefits The focus is upon reigniting a stalled, non-productive policy dialogue, by eschewing stale, overly-polemicized arguments, as needed to develop a common ground Drawing from an eclectic, analytic framework, governance experts Nicholas Vakkur and Zulma Herrera offer both the professional and global citizen alike a multi-dimensional understanding of issues critical to global economic health. Nuanced and persuasively argued, Corporate Governance Regulation represents a formidable catalyst in the elusive, ongoing quest for global economic stability.
Полный вариант заголовка: «A defence of natural and revealed religions : Being a collection of the sermons preached at the lecture founded by the Honourable Robert Boyle. Vol. 3».
Полный вариант заголовка: «A looking glass, for London and Englande / made by Thomas Lodge, and Robert Green».
Gain a deeper understanding of the issues surrounding financial risk and regulation Foundations of Financial Risk details the various risks, regulations, and supervisory requirements institutions face in today's economic and regulatory environment. Written by the experts at the Global Association of Risk Professionals (GARP), this book represents an update to GARP's original publication, Foundations of Banking Risk. You'll learn the terminology and basic concepts surrounding global financial risk and regulation, and develop an understanding of the methods used to measure and manage market, credit, and operational risk. Coverage includes traded market risk and regulation, treasury risk and regulation, and much more, including brand new coverage of risk management for insurance companies. Clear explanations, focused discussion, and comprehensive relevancy make this book an ideal resource for an introduction to risk management. The textbook provides an understanding of risk management methodologies, governance structures for risk management in financial institutions and the regulatory requirements dictated by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. It provides thorough coverage of the issues surrounding financial risk, giving you a solid knowledgebase and a practical, applicable understanding. Understand risk measurement and management Learn how minimum capital requirements are regulated Explore all aspects of financial institution regulation and disclosure Master the terminology of global risk and regulation Financial institutions and supervisors around the world are increasingly recognizing how vital sound risk management practices are to both individual firms and the capital markets system as a whole. Savvy professionals recognize the need for authoritative and comprehensive training, and Foundations of Financial Risk delivers with expert-led education for those new to risk management.
Полный вариант заголовка: «A defence of natural and revealed religion : Vol. 2 : being an abridgment of the sermons / preached at the lecture founded by the Honorable Robert Boyle».
Полный вариант заголовка: «The elements of Euclid : viz. the first 6 books, together with the 11th and 12th : also the book of Euclid's Data : to which are added, the elements of plane and spherical trigonometry : and a treatise on the construction of the trigonometrical canon / by Robert Simson ; also a concise account of logarithms, by the Rev. A. Robertson».
As the global market expands, the need for international regulation becomes urgent Since World War II, financial crises have been the result of macroeconomic instability until the fatidic week end of September 15 2008, when Lehman Brothers filed for bankruptcy. The financial system had become the source of its own instability through a combination of greed, lousy underwriting, fake ratings and regulatory negligence. From that date, governments tried to put together a new regulatory framework that would avoid using taxpayer money for bailout of banks. In an uncoordinated effort, they produced a series of vertical regulations that are disconnected from one another. That will not be sufficient to stop finance from being instable and the need for international and horizontal regulation is urgent. This challenge is the focus of Georges Ugeux’s book. International Finance Regulation: The Quest for Financial Stability focuses on the inspirations behind regulation, and examines the risks and consequences of fragmentation on a global scale. Author Georges Ugeux has four decades of experience in the legal and economic aspects of international business operations. He created and run the New York Stock Exchange’sinternational group in charge of developing the NYSE’s reach to non-US companies, including relationships with regulators and governments. Ugeux teaches European Banking and Finance of the Columbia University School of Law. Ugeux is uniquely positioned to provide recommendations and suggestions from the perspective of a top global authority. In the book, he explores international regulation with topics such as: • Laws, regulations, and risks of overregulation • Transformation of the U.S. market and creation of the Eurozone • Development of a global framework and stability of the banking system • In-depth examination of Basel III, the Dodd-Frank Act, the European Banking Union, and the Volcker Rule The book also contains case studies from real-world scenarios like Lehman, CDS, Greece, the London Whale, and Libor to illustrate the concepts presented. Finance consistently operates within an increasingly global paradigm, and an overarching regulation scheme is becoming more and more necessary for sustainable growth. International Finance Regulation: The Quest for Financial Stability presents an argument for collaboration toward a comprehensive global regulation strategy.
Полный вариант заголовка: «Popular ballads and songs : Vol. 2 : from tradition, manuscripts and scarce editions with translations of similar pieces from the ancient Danish language, and a few originals by the editor / by Robert Jamieson».