Epigenetics is a term in biology referring to heritable traits that do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. Epigenetic traits exist on top of or in addition to the traditional molecular basis for inheritance. The «epigenome» is a parallel to the word «genome,» and refers to the overall epigenetic state of a cell. Cancer and stem cell research have gradually focused attention on these genome modifications. The molecular basis of epigenetics involves modifications to DNA and the chromatin proteins that associate with it. Methylation, for example, can silence a nearby gene and seems to be involved in some cancers. Epigenetics is beginning to form and take shape as a new scientific discipline, which will have a major impact on Medicine and essentially all fields of biology. Increasingly, researchers are unearthing links between epigenetics and a number of diseases. Although in recent years cancer has been the main focus of epigenetics, recent data suggests that epigenetic plays a critical role in psychology and psychopathology. It is being realized that normal behaviors such as maternal care and pathologies such as Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's might have an epigenetic basis. It is also becoming clear that nutrition and life experiences have epigenetic consequences. Discover more online content in the Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine.
The study of epigenetic switches is very important to understand the mechanism of human development, the origin of cancer, mental illness and fundamental processes such as gene regulation. The bacteriophage epigenetic switch, which allows switching from lysogeny to lysis has recently received renewed attention. The interaction between the bacteriophage repressor and its DNA is an ideal model system to study DNA wrapping and looping and to reveal fundamental principles of long-range interactions and gene regulation by nucleoprotein complexes.
Metastasis is the main cause of mortality due to cancer; therefore, it is crucial to improve our understanding of the regulation of genes controlling the metastatic process in order to develop more effective therapies. Metastasis formation is a multi-step process resulting from genetic and epigenetic alterations in key regulatory molecules. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are attractive therapeutic targets as they are potentially reversible. This work focuses on the epigenetic regulation of two metastasis genes, MMP-9 and TIMP-2, in a reversible bovine cancer model induced by Theileria parasites, which allows us to study on-off switches controlling cellular invasion. I found a novel epigenetic regulator of MMP-9, the histone-modifier SMYD3, which also revealed crucial roles in the metastatic properties of human cancer cells. I showed that TIMP-2 is mainly regulated by DNA methylation in Theileria-infected cells, even though other layers of epigenetic control are present on this promoter. This work sheds light on the understanding of epigenetic events controlling metastasis genes, which should be useful for professionals and students interested in cancer genetics.
Epigenetics is the study of both heritable and non-heritable changes in the regulation of gene activity and expression that occur without an alteration in the DNA sequence. This dynamic and rapidly developing discipline is making its impact across the biomedical sciences, in particular in toxicology where epigenetic differences can mean that different individuals respond differently to the same drug or chemical. Toxicology and Epigenetics reflects the multidimensional character of this emerging area of toxicology, describing cutting-edge molecular technologies to unravel epigenetic changes, the use of in vivo and in vitro models, as well as the potential use of toxicological epigenetics in regulatory environments. An international team of experts consider the interplay between epigenetics and toxicology in a number of areas, including environmental, nutritional, pharmacological, and computational toxicology, nanomaterials, proteomics and metabolomics, and cancer research. Topics covered include: environment, epigenetics and diseases DNA methylation and toxicogenomics chromatin at the intersection of disease and therapy epigenomic actions of environmental arsenicals environment, epigenetics and cardiovascular health toxicology, epigenetics and autoimmunity ocular epigenomics: potential sites of environmental impact in development and disease nuclear RNA silencing and related phenomena in animals epigenomics – impact for drug safety sciences methods of global epigenomic profiling transcriptomics: applications in epigenetic toxicology Toxicology and Epigenetics is an essential insight into the current trends and future directions of research in this rapidly expanding field for investigators, toxicologists, risk assessors and regulators in academia, industry and government.
Based on one of the leading encyclopedic resources in cell and molecular biology worldwide, this two-volume work contains more than 75% new content, not previously published in the Encyclopedia. All the other chapters have been carefully updated. The result is a comprehensive overview of the different functions of the various forms of RNA in living organisms, with each contributor carefully selected and an internationally recognized expert on his or her field. Special focus is on the different forms of expression regulation through RNA, with medical applications in the treatment of diseases – from cancers and immune responses to infections and aging – covered in detail. At least 45 of the 55 articles are new content previously not published in the Encyclopedia.
Epigenetic is heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve changes in DNA sequence,is known to be involved in disease. Two important epigenetic changes that are known to contribute to disease are abnormal methylation patterns of DNA and modifications of histones in chromatin.This therapy describes a new development in pharmacology,epigenetic therapy,which attempts to correct these changes.
Asthma is a complex genetic disease, which arises from the interaction of multiple genes and environmental stimuli.These can be mechanically explained by the Epigenetic phenomenon, which consists of the chromatin and its modifications, as well as a covalent modification of cytosines residing at the dinucleotide sequence CG in DNA by methylation. This reaction is catalyzed by a family of DNA methyltransferase enzyme (DNMTs). DNMT1 is one of them which maintained the methylation status during replication and also critical for the development, differencian and regulation of Th1 and Th2 cells as well as regulation of other genes. In this study we discuss the epigenetic regulation of of DNMT1 and Socs3 gene and their role in asthma development.For these studies we developed asthma mouse model, and used Flow cytometer, qRT2-PCR, Methylation specific PCR, bisulfate conversion and BiQ analyzer and antisense technology.
Systems biology is a relatively new biological study field that focuses on the systematic study of complex interactions in biological systems, thus using a new perspective (integration instead of reduction) to study them. Particularly from year 2000 onwards, the term is used widely in the biosciences, and in a variety of contexts. Systems biology is the study of the interconnected aspect of molecular, cellular, tissue, whole animal and ecological processes, and comprises mathematical and mechanistic studies of dynamical, mesoscopic, open, spatiotemporally defined, nonlinear, complex systems that are far from thermodynamic equilibrium.
These two volumes contain a selection of updated articles from the acclaimed Meyers Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, the most authoritative resource in cell and molecular biology, combined with new articles by «founding fathers» in the field. The work is divided into six sections: + Biological Basis + Modeling + Modular Parts and Circuits + Synthetic Genomes + Diseases and Therapeutics + Chemicals Production. Ideally suited as advanced reading for students and postdocs, and with all current research trends covered by an impressive number of leading figures in the field, this is the first choice reference for research institutions.
Epigenetic is one the most important and distinct molecular pathway in colorectal cancer.The epigenetic pathway affect the level of expression of multiple cancer candidate genes essential for cell cycle control, DNA repair, and many others actions within the colon mucosa. Therefore, besides mutations, epigenetic changes including the promoters’ methylation of a set of cancer candidate genes (CAN genes) are associated with the CRC progression. Transcriptional silencing by the hypermethylation of CpG islands is an early event in tumor progression and is considered as a methylator phenotype.
This third in the Current Topics in Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine Series contains a careful selection of new and updated, high-quality articles from the well-known Meyer's Encyclopedia, describing new perspectives in stem cell research. The 26 chapters are divided into four sections: Basic Biology, Stem Cells and Disease, Stem Cell Therapy Approaches, and Laboratory Methods, with the authors chosen from among the leaders in their respective fields. This volume represents an essential guide for students and researchers seeking an overview of the field.
Stat3, Socs3 and cytokines play an integral role in coordination and persistence of inflammation. However, a clear understanding of the role played by the Stat3/IL-6 and Socs3 pathway in airway inflammation is lacking. We report the alteration in the status of expression and activation of Stat3 by Ovalbumin, and establish its relationship with Socs3 and IL-6 in the lungs of mice with eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation and airway hyper responsiveness. As IL-6 regulates the activity of DNA methyltransferases, we hypothesize that asthma is fallout of epigenetic alteration in Socs3. Here, the status of CpG methylation and histone acetylation in the Socs3 promoter of asthmatic lung was studied, as was the role of IL-6 in altering these parameters.
Whether we want to buy a cell phone, rice or a bag of corn, baked cakes, a loaf of bread, whether we click our order, telephone the order, use the mail, or go to a retail store, the transactions, and indeed most economic transactions, are influenced by some form of market regulation. In ‘market regulation’, the word, "regulation," usually connotes some extra-market, even administrative, guidance of the market. We'll call this external regulation to distinguish it from regulation by competition. What is really regulation? The regulation refers to controlling human or societal behaviour by rules or restrictions. Regulation can take many forms: legal restrictions promulgated by a certain governing authority, social regulation like norms, and market regulation. One can consider regulation as actions of conduct imposing sanctions that may be sometime fines.
FSHD is an autosomal dominant disease associated with contraction of D4Z4 repeats, mapping to 4q35. By an unknown mechanism, D4Z4 deletion causes an epigenetic switch leading to de-repression of 4q35 genes. Repression by D4Z4 displays similarities with Polycomb-mediated silencing. Polycomb (PcG) and Trithorax (TrxG) group proteins work as counteractors in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Transcription of PcG-binding regions can regulate PcG activity. Intriguingly, it is shown here that D4Z4 generates a chromatin-bound RNA selectively in FSHD patients and upon 4q35 de-repression. This transcript is specifically 4q35-associated and is required for 4q35 gene de-repression. Interestingly, the identified RNA promotes the recruitment of the TrxG protein Ash1L to the FSHD locus. Notably, Ash1L is necessary for 4q35 gene de-repression. These results suggest that the RNA functions by recruiting Ash1L to counteract PcG silencing at D4Z4 leading to 4q35 gene de-repression in FSHD. This work provides a nexus for revealing the epigenetic basis of FSHD etiology. Moreover, this study gives insights into the biological function of repetitive elements.
Written by Mike Meyers, the #1 name in A+ training, this manual features 40 labs that challenge you to solve real world problems by applying the concepts you’ve learned.