This book addresses and explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of different routing protocols on the Motorway Surveillance System which based on the infrastructureless networks (Ad Hoc) as a one of the most important applications used today to improve physical safety on highways. This book also covers performance evaluations, comparisons, and analysis for three routing protocols (AODV, DSR, and OLSR) on a Motorway Surveillance System and a new algorithm to modify the Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol in order to improve the routing performance in motorway surveillance systems.
Vehicle Ad hoc Networks (VANET) emerged as a subset of the Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) application; it is considered to be a substantial approach to the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). VANETs were introduced to support drivers and improve safety issues and driving comfort, as a step towards constructing a safer, cleaner and more intelligent environment. VANET has some unique characteristics compared to MANET; specifically it includes high mobility and constrained patterns restricted by roads. Many challenges have emerged in VANET, encouraging researchers to investigate their research in an attempt to meet these challenges. Routing protocol issues are considered to be a critical dilemma that needs to be tackled in VANET, particularly in a sparse environment. This book introduces an efficient routing mechanism that impacts on enhancing network performance in terms of disseminating messages to a desired destination, balancing the overhead on the network and increasing the ratio of packet delivery with a reduced time delay. Moreover this book presents an On Board Unit (OBU) architecture for sending HELLO beacon messages adaptively in VANET based on the context aware system.
the book studies the theoretical analysis of some characteristics in Ad Hoc Networks. It consists of two parts. In the first part, we describe a number of characteristics in Ad Hoc Network with a dynamic topology like the neighbour nodes, the area of the Ad Hoc Network, number of nodes, node density, and area of transmission.the second part studies the effects of topology changes, number of nodes changes, average number of neighbour nodes and transmission range on some location based routing algorithms such as Geographic Distance Routing (GEDIR) and Location-Aided Routing in Ad Hoc Networks.
An ad hoc network is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes to forming an instant multihop radio infrastructure-less network in a dynamic topology. Each node in Ad hoc network, functions as host and router at the same time, where maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner by distributing the network control among the nodes. Many routing protocols for mobile ad-hoc networks are presented since last decade. Topology frequently changing, transmission power and asymmetric links are the main challenge that types of protocols is facing. This has led to development of many different routing protocols for networks. In this review work, we provided an overview of a wide range of routing protocols proposed in the literature till date. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that studies nearly 52 existing routing protocols in Ad hoc Networks.
MANET field is one of the most vibrant and active research fields in wireless communications networking. MANET can be built around any wireless technology. Wireless communication networks have witnessed recently the introductory of a promising transmission technology called UWB. In MANET, routing protocols are needed to establish and maintain connections between nodes. The main goal of this thesis is to design efficient routing protocols for MANET based on UWB technology in a production line in a factory which is an industrial indoor application. The production line network scenario was defined and simulated in ns-2 simulator as basis for the investigations. In these investigations, AODV, DSR, and OLSR were considered. In addition, closed-form formulas were found for the channel capacity of MANET as a tool for benchmarking and validation. Based on the investigations, two approaches were proposed to design efficient routing protocols for the production line scenario. Based on the first approach, a new routing protocol was designed and it was called Ad-Hoc On-Demand Multipath Source Routing protocol.
A Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is a type of Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) that is used to provide communications between nearby vehicles, and between vehicles and fixed infrastructure on the roadside. Though VANET is a type of MANET but the routing protocols of MANET are not feasible with VANET and if they are even feasible then they are not able to provide the optimum throughput required for a fast changing vehicular ad-hoc network. The difference between VANET and MANET is that in VANET, the nodes are moving on predefined roads, and node in the network is very fastly movable and this is where the routing protocols have to be modified or changed. The book presents the Vehicular Ad hoc Networks and the typical routing protocol: the ad hoc on-demand routing protocol (AODV) in mobile ad hoc networks and the modified protocol AODV_OBD for protocol AODV.
Increase in popularity of wireless technology and continuous technological advancement has made ad-hoc network as an area of interest.An ad-hoc network is an infrastructure-less, dynamic wireless network consisted of nodes that can communicate directly with each other if lying in each other vicinity .Because of the dynamic nature, nodes are free to move and arrange themselves arbitrarily. Thus, the network's topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. Existing work in ad-hoc routing is generally related to the better utilization of bandwidth only. But in order to cater all type of real time applications, efficient routing is not a solution. Because of the dynamic nature, routing in ad-hoc networks experiences link failure. Hence, a routing protocol that supports efficient routing along with guaranteed services like guaranteed bandwidth, less delay, reduction in resource consumption, increased throughput etc. (collectively known as Quality of Service or QoS ) is required. This Book provides a new solution for the provision of QoS in terms of Bandwidth and Delay in ad-hoc environment.
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a multi-hop wireless network, without having pre-existing infrastructure and centralized administration. Each node participating in the network acts both as host as well as a router. Prominent characteristics of Ad Hoc Networks viz. Dynamic topology, Limited Physical Security, Energy Constrained operations throw challenge in the development of robust and efficient routing protocols. The Ad Hoc Routing protocols can be categorized broadly into Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols. This literature is an attempt to understand the behavior of three Ad hoc routing protocols which falls in three different categories of routing. The protocols under consideration for study are Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (AODV) which follows Reactive Routing scheme, Destination Sequence Distance Vector Routing Protocol (DSDV) is categorized as Proactive and Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) is Hybrid in nature. The performance differentials shall provide an insight about the sensitivity of the protocols when operating in more challenging environment such as rapid change in network topology or the density of the network.
An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. There are number of routing protocols developed by researchers. Due to the nature of ad hoc networks, secure routing is an important area of research in developing secured routing protocols. Although researchers have proposed several secure routing protocols, the evaluation results of these protocols refer that they do not give complete protection against possible attacks and have some disadvantages on their performance.In this book, I examined a new routing protocol called Weight-Based AODV (WBAODV)routing protocol which is efficient and superior of the standard AODV routing protocol in performance, but is not secure. So I proposed a new secure routing protocol based on WBAODV which will be efficient and also immune against the most commonly possible routing attacks. Finally I analyzed the proposed protocol against many attacks to ensure its security and also subject it to extensive simulation tests with the most commonly well-known ad hoc performance metrics to ensure its efficiency.
This book proposed two approaches for secure ad-hoc on demand distance vector routing (AODV) against black hole attack in mobile ad-hoc network. The black hole attack one of such security risks in mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). In this attack, a malicious node falsely advertise shortest path to the destination node with an intention to disrupt the communication. We propose a simple, efficient and effective method for making a secure routing protoccol with minimum routing overhead to combat the black hole problem. The proposed method does not require any database, extra memory and more processing power. The simulation results show effectiveness of the proposed method.The simulation results shows the efficiency of the proposed method as throughput of the network does not deteriorate in presence of the black hole attack
This work proposes a new routing algorithm to allow communication in highly mobile, wireless ad-hoc networks, which by nature are wireless and infrastructureless. In motorway environments, the topology of the network changes frequently and is unpredictable due to the mobility of the nodes. We investigate a new reactive routing algorithm based on location information in the context of inter-vehicular communication. In such a scenario, the originator of the communication does not know the position of its communication partner in advance. Rapid topology changes and scarce bandwidth prevent the nodes from exchanging positions regularly throughout the network. Therefore, we focus on reactive algorithms and explore several mechanisms limiting the flooding of discoveries location packets. The originator of a message uses scoped and controlled flooding to reach the destination. The receivers of the flooded message use their knowledge of the local environment to decide whether they can reach the intended destination of the message or retransmit the message to their neighbours.
Mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) has become particularly vulnerable to intrusion, as they operate in open medium, and use cooperative strategies for network communications.We have used AODV routing protocol and we have make it more secure routing protocol and detected the black hole attack using last transmission time. Security of our approach is better than AODV’s security. Here we are saving memory requirement for detection of black hole attack.
Ad hoc mobile devices heavily depend on the performance of batteries. Optimizing the power consumption is a very crucial issue. To maximize the lifetime of mobile ad hoc network, the power consumption rate of each node must be reduced. In this paper we present a novel energy efficient routing algorithm based on mobile agents to deal with the routing mechanism in the energy-critical environments. A few mobile agents move in the network and communicate with each node. They collect the network information to build the global information matrix of nodes. The routing algorithm chooses a shortest path of all nodes in all possible routes. Additionally, we compare the performance of power-relation routing protocol DSR (Dynamic Source Routing)in simulation environment. The results show that the survivability of Ad Hoc network has been better because of less energy consumption when usingour improved DSR as compare to standard DSR protocol.
This book reports on the research to enhance of a routing protocol to solve the problem of link breakage in DSDV which is a table-driven routing protocol, applied in Vehicular Ad Hoc networks. Due to high mobility in vehicular networks, link breakage is a problem in table-driven routing protocols which is cause of increasing delay time and packet loss in such networks. DSDV solves this problem by sending periodical message to update routing tables of each node’s neighbors. This period is constant in DSDV routing protocol. But link breakage still exists during this period of time. To moderate this issue, this research presents a new model of DSDV routing protocol. The results of scenarios in this research prove that this enhancement in DSDV reduces the packet loss; it also it decreases the delay of network. As a result, throughput of the network is increased.
Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a self configuring infrastructure-less network of autonomous battery powered mobile nodes connected by low bandwidth wireless links in a dynamic topology. Each node in MANET functions as host as well as router simultaneously and maintains connectivity by distributing the network control among the nodes. Ad-hoc networks are considered important in situations where the installation of a fixed infrastructure is costly, difficult, impossible or simply unnecessary. MANETs are vulnerable to various attacks which can compromise the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of the exchanged information. This book proposes a fusion of security measures with Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) protocol, resulting in Secure AODV (SAODV) against various routing attacks such as misrouting, dropping of packets etc. The Black Hole problem is a routing attack when a node pretends itself as a destination node or as an intermediate node having a route to destination and eventually consumes all the data packets that are routed to it. The simulation result shows that SAODV can with stand in the presence of Black Hole Attack and performs satisfactorily.