Conclusions drawn on the basis of the results obtained in the present investigation are stated below: 1. Combined application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 (kg ha-1) was the best dose of nutrients in hybrid rice under rice-wheat cropping system which produced highest grain yield (78.91and 75.00 qha-1durng both the years, respectively). It also improved soil fertility status measured as the available N,P,K,S and Zn. 2. For wheat after hybrid rice crop, the application of N150P60K120 kg ha-1 was found most suitable 3. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice showed residual effect on succeeding wheat crop as reflected in respect to grain and straw yields and all the nutrient treatment also improved soil fertility. 4. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T1) increased soil available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and zinc after harvest of each crop. 5. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn0 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T8) was the best treatment and found most economical followed by T1.
This book “Crop Residue Management in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” has written for plant nutrient management in rice - wheat cropping system with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The rice-wheat cropping system is one of most widely practiced cropping system in India as well as across the world. The nutrient management in this system is a big task; both crops are heavy nutrient feeder. It requires nutrient cycling from organic residues to maintain nutrient balance in soil. Addition of organic matter to the soil through the return of crop residues also improves soil structure, influences soil water, air and temperature relation, helps to control runoff and erosion and makes tillage easier. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources would be essential for sustainability of the rice-wheat system. This book provides the information about NPK nutrient balance and crop performance under crop residue management practices.
Asian subtropics occupies 21 million hectares of rice-wheat cropping system on their fertile soils. This system carried out on 15 million hectares with highly significant impact for food safety in the area, providing staple food for more than 415 million people.Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has the highest position in food grains in Pakistan: 66% of the total area under food grains is wheat and it contributes 74% of the total food grain production.Tillage is done according to the soil types. Delay in wheat sowing is the result of 6-8 ploughing with planking and loss of high energy.Timely wheat planting after rice ensured in 10 percent higher wheat grain yield in a rice-wheat cropping system.Drilling of wheat in to rice residue using zero tillage has eliminated the time for land preparation and improved crop stand establishment.So,this study has, therefore, been planned to achieve the most economical method for sowing wheat in a rice-wheat cropping system and Quantify the nutrient losses to soil fertility of burning rice straw. Mushtaq Ahmad Gill is the founder of zero tillage and laser land leveling technology in Pakistan and contributed a lot for this research and book.
Rice-Wheat cropping system covers about 11 m ha in India, is the backbone of India's food security. This cropping system produces as high as 12.8 to 17.0 t/ha/annum at different levels of cultivation and is highly nutrient depleting but the factors responsible for success of this system are good economic return, market infrastructural support and very little risk making increasingly popular with the farmers over the years. The introduction of the non-sensitive, input responsive, relatively early maturing varieties of rice and wheat in the mid 60's enabled farmers to intensify land use and increased the acreage under this important cropping system. In recent years, there is a problem to sustain the high yield levels of rice-wheat in India. Several factors including attack of insect pests and diseases are considered responsible for stagnation in productivity of this cropping system. The present investigations were, therefore, carried out with a view to monitor insect pests, diseases and natural enemies operating in rice and wheat ecosystems and to develop an effective bio intensive management strategy to contain population buildup of major insect pests and diseases of rice and wheat.
The rice (Oryza sativa L.) - wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system occupies about 28.8 million hectares mainly spread over Asia’s five countries, namely, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and China. Organic farming offers alternative system for sustainable production and natural resource system. The aim of nutrient management in organic systems is to optimize the use of on–farm resources and minimize losses. Organic materials such as farmyard manure, compost, vermicompost, biogas slurry, green manures, crop residues, biofertilizers and cover crops are other valuable source of nutrients to improve the growth and yield attributes, yields, nutrient uptake, grain quality and soil fertility. The present book is a part of studies which is conducted to determine the optimum combination organic manures crop residues and biofertilizers for meeting nutritional requierment of rice-wheat and rice-wheat-mungbean cropping systems. It also focuses on studying the impact of organic farming practices on the health of soil, quality of organically grown products in order to find out economics of organic farming of rice-based cropping systems.
Dr. Y.V.Singh, Senior Scientist (Agronomy), IARI,New Delhi, India, has developed protocol for Basmati rice cultivation through organic management for sustainable productivity and better quality. In this protocol he used four (Blue green algae @ 2.0 kg/ha, Azolla @ 1.0t/ha/ Azotobacter @ 0.5 kg/ha, vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha and Farm yard manure @ 5.0 t/ha) organic inoculants to meet the nutrient requirement of organic Basmati rice-wheat-green gram system and got
the projet will help the farmers for increasing the productivity by checking the growth of weeds at early stage of growth of the growth and increasing the nutritive value of the crops. this will help in reducing the malnutrition in developing children.this will also help in improving the fertility of soil by checking the growth of the weed thereby checking the nutrient losses by weeds.In general there will be more food grain production per unit area.
The study was undertaken to find out the optimum nutrient management practice of potato-mungbean-T. Aman rice cropping pattern to maximize yield realization and economic return by maintaining soil fertility and productivity. The experiment was conducted at Regional Wheat Research Centre of the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Joydebpur Gazipur, Bangladesh for 2 consecutive years during 2006-07 and 2007-08. Twelve nutrient management treatments were tested in RCBD with 3 replications. The highest potato tuber, mungbean seed and T. Aman rice yield were obtained from STB+CRI in both the years. The nutrient balance was negative for N and K in all the treatments while the balances for P, S, Zn and B appeared positive in all the treatments except FP and control treatments in both the years. Properties of soil have been changed a little after completion of two cropping cycles in comparison to initial soil properties. Maximum gross return, gross margin and net return in STB+CRI (Tk.3,80,927 ha-1), (Tk.3,54,831 ha-1) and (Tk.2,77,172 ha-1), respectively. The highest BCR was observed in STB (3.69) followed by STB+CRI (3.67), IPNS (3.45) and IPNS+CRI (3.43).
This book deals with integrated nutrient management in fodder maize–rapeseed cropping system. The results indicated that adequate nutrition might be achieved by balanced application of organic and inorganic sources of nutrients along with biofertilizers. Application of 50% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) through organic manures (30 kg N ha-1) and 50% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) through chemical fertilizers (30 kg N 15 kg P2O5 and 15 kg K2O ha-1) along with biofertilizer (Azotobacter) improved most of the growth and yield attributes and increased yield of fodder maize and succeeding rapeseed. It also improved the quality parameters of fodder maize, enhanced N, P and K contents in both the crops, recorded higher uptake of N, P and K by the cropping system, paid higher return and improved/sustained soil fertility as compared to those of the other treatments.The book will be useful for UG/PG students, researchers, extension workers and fodder growers.
Field experiments were conducted at Cropping Systems Research Centre, Karamana, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala during summer/third crop/puncha season in 2007 and 2008 to find out the effect of nutrient sources under different management systems. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four replications. The treatments consisted of four management systems viz., System of Rice Intensification SRI (M1), Integrated Crop Establishment Method (ICM) (M2), Package of practices (PoP) (M3) of Kerala Agricultural University and Conventional management practices (M4) in main plot. Nutrient sources viz., organic sources (S1), integrated nutrient sources (S2) and inorganic sources (S3) were the sub plot treatments.
Survival of Little Seed Canary Grass: The little seed canary grass is one of the notorious weeds in the rice-wheat cropping systems in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and elsewhere. The management practices advised to farmers have often failed to control this weed. With significant impact on wheat yields, the weed has become news in the popular and scientific media. In order to design and implement an effective weed management regime, it is very important that the biology of the weed is well understood. In this respect, the survival mechanism of the little seed canary grass and its seed is studied in the rice- wheat cropping conditions where alternative drying and wetting conditions prevail. Designed to understand the seed survival and germination patterns under different soil and cropping conditions, this study, has provided valuable insights into the seed survival conditions for the little seed canary grass and could provide a means to design better crop management practices. This book will be useful for students, researchers and practitioners who are interested in the subject of weed management in general and in rice-wheat cropping systems in specific.
A field experiment was conducted during rabi (August, 2010-January, 2011) season in Wetland Farms of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, to evaluate the integrated nutrient management practices under system of rice intensification. The main objective of the study was to optimize the use of different sources of nutrients under SRI. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. It is evident from the present investigation that application of 75% inorganic N + 12.5% N through FYM + 12.5% N through well decomposed PM is found to be a better option for getting higher productivity and economic returns of rice under system of rice intensification.
On the basis of results of present investigation, it may be concluded that intercropping of pigeonpea with greengram gave higher productivity and net profit than sole pigeonpea and sole greengram. The response to phosphorus was marked upto 40 and 80 kg P2O5 / ha. The economic optimum dose was recorded to be 46.54 and 67.02 kg P2O5/ha for sole pigeonpea 39.71 and 40.25 kg P2O5/ha for sole greengram and 44.14 and 51.96 kg P2O5/ha for pigeonpea + greengram intercropping system, in 2005 and 2006 respectively. Seed inoculation with biofertilizers resulted in marked yield increase and thus higher net return over un-inoculation.
Present study is in progress since 1990-91 at Crop Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S.Nagar (Uttaranchal) to study the long term effects of herbicide use in rice-wheat system. Treatments consisted of combinations of butachlor at 1.5 kg ha-1,hand weeding (30 and 60 days after transplanting) and weedy check in rice and each kharif season treatment followed by isoproturon at 1.0 kg ha-1,hand weeding twice (30 and 60 days after sowing) and weedy check in wheat. Experiment was laid out in randomized block design, with nine treatments and three replications. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, medium in organic carbon, low in available nitrogen and medium in available phosphorus and potassium with neutral soil reaction. The various studies conducted during Kharif and rabi season of 2003-04 and 2004-05 are presented here.
System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is considered as a novel and improved practice to raise rice production constrained by several factors. The book presents a comprehensive review on SRI. The performance of cultivars in relation to methods of planting (SRI and conventional transplanting) and the effect of FYM when used alone or in integrated manner on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of rice is presented.