It has been said that the thought processes and attitudes of Japanese people are distinctly different from those of people of the Western culture. From the perspective of an anthropologist and a Japanese expatriate, the author argues that the thoughts and attitudes of Japanese are profoundly correlated with pressure to conform to social norms and nationalism, which are not usually discussed or apparent to outsiders. This paper describes Japanese culture and attempts to explain the conceptual differences in some major ideas between Japanese and Westerns. It also analyzes how Japanese language, education, and religions intertwine with each other, function, and are used as ideologies for building Japanese nationalism and shaping Japanese people. This paper is divided into four major sections: (1) The People and Nation of Japan, (2) The Religion of Japan, (3) The Socialization of Japanese Values and Nationalism, and (4) Social Conformity and Nationalism Today.
This wide-ranging, multidisciplinary collection of essays analyzes the social, political, economic and ideological impact of the forces of globalization, and of the nationalist responses to these, in major Asian nations from India, Malaysia and Indonesia to China and Japan. Among the key issues explored are the globalization of Hindu nationalism, the ideological struggle in East Asia between nationalists and the advocates of a pan-Asian civilization, the repercussions for Asian nations of the recentpan-Asian financial crisis, the rise of neo-nationalism in late-twentieth-century Japan, the Chinese nationalist response to Western economic domination, and the conflict between ethnic nationalism and national unity in Malaysia, Indonesia and Fiji.
This book examines the construction of Hindu nationalism and Hindu identity from a social-psychological perspective. More particularly, it attempts to provide a psychoanalytic account of factors that have aroused Hindu nationalism and the strategy Hindu nationalists have employed to bring about group cohesion since the 1980s, adding to existing studies that rely on social and political aspects. This book will be helpful for general readers who are interested in Hindu nationalism in India.
This book provides a new approach to the understanding of economic policy reform by placing it in the context of the perennial conflict between the two historical social forces of economic globalization and economic nationalism and examines successive attempts over the last half century to change the roles of state and market in the management of the Indian economy.
Humans are social beings who spend most of their lives in the presence of other people.Our existence revolves around social interactions(Taylor, Peplau & Sears, 2003;Singleman & Rider, 2006).Through socialization we identify with a social group or individuals. We learn to value the attitudes, positions and opinions held by our social group. Hence, social influence is a central part of human behaviour(Taylor, Peplau & Sears,2003).Asch‘s work had a profound interest on how psychologist think about and study social influence(Levine, 1999).Asch focused his attention at the individual level and may have slowed down interest in social interactions or group processes(Leyens & Cornelle, 1999).This dissertation builds on Asch‘s study of social influence in groups, by examining how normative factors (status) affect the conformity situation,and its ability to override the Asch paradigm (majority- minority condition).It also aimed at investigating whether individuals conform premised on the Asch paradigm (majority-minority condition),or based on the existence of social categories.
Nationalism and the Crowd in Liberal Hungary, 1848 –1914
Religion and Nationalism in Iraq – A Comparative Perspective
Since the end of the Second World War, separatist nationalism and social mobilization have received great attention from social scientists. Both have attracted the interest of scholars who have since engaged in endless disputes over methodologies, theories and paradigms. Separatist Nationalism, understood as the nationalism that aspires to transform from a non-sovereign nation into a sovereign nation-state has from its conceptualization, been on the rise. Spain, a nation composed by 17 autonomous communities and strongly influenced by the country’s historical past has in the latest years been witness to what separatist means, autonomic claims and self-determination movements represent in the splintering of a nation and its peoples. The unsettling sundering the Spanish nation is undergoing has prompted the need to address this matter, in the means to better grasp and contribute to the understanding of the Spanish nation and its rising issues. This study, framed into 3 chapters, encompasses a critical examination of the course of historical events and an address of nationalistic and constitutional development, in the rise and struggle of separatist-nationalism.
The study comparatively examines the student protests that took place in Macedonia, Serbia, and Bulgaria in the winter of 1996/1997, with regards to the interplay between liberalism and nationalism. It compares the three similar post-communist countries with non-consolidated democracy through the instances of liberalism and nationalism that could be found in the student protests that happened in a parallel time-period. Specifically, the study tries to find out how liberalism and nationalism coexist in a protest movement, on one side, and in which instances nationalism is present in pro-democratic movements, on the other side. The study shows that in the cases of Macedonia and Serbia the lining of liberalism and nationalism is inverted – while liberalism is in the front side in Serbia, nationalism is dominant in Macedonia. Furthermore, it shows that nationalism is present in Macedonia and Serbia, but not in Bulgaria, because Macedonia and Serbia have issues of contested statehood and unresolved inter-ethnic problems, which are absent in Bulgaria.
Against the State – Politics & Social Protest in Japan (Paper)
Status symbols are an integral part of today’s world. This book explores the social effects of status symbols on consumer behavior within the context of Pakistan. The book further explores the link between status symbols and social acceptance, and whether influencing pressures cause changes in buying behavior. It seeks to understand why people make purchasing decisions based on social conformity and how customers feel about counterfeit products. It explores the changing consumer trends and perceptions prevalent towards status symbols. The book begins by introducing the concept of status symbols and then reviews certain literature related to status symbols. Status symbols have an effect on social acceptance and consumers make purchasing decisions based on social conformity in order to gain acceptance and recognition within a social group. Influencing pressures cause changes in buying behavior. The book explores people’s image towards counterfeit products. Uncomfortable purchases are caused due to influential pressures. Identifying consumer trends helps marketers and companies to understand, meet and exceed the customer’s expectations.
This book is an attempt to propose new directions for Christian theology in India in the present context of globalization and militant Hindu nationalism. In recent years, Christians have been the target of violent attacks by militant Hindu nationalists. Critically analyzing the history of Christianity and militant Hindu nationalism in India, this book contends that militant Hindu nationalism originated in the context of Western colonialism, which brought about a crisis of religious, cultural, and national identity among Hindus. Moreover, contemporary globalization is perceived as recreating “colonization-like” situations, only now at a staggering speed and on a global level.The contemporary attacks on Christians by militant Hindu nationalists must be understood within the dynamics of globalization. The Church in India needs to respond to this crisis. The author proposes that through a renewed theological initiative based on the three traditional areas of focus of Indian theology – inculturation, interreligious dialogue, and social justice - the Church can become genuinely Indian and address the crisis arising from globalization and militant Hindu nationalism.
Why are different varieties of the Japanese language used differently in social interaction, and how are they perceived? How do honorifics operate to express diverse affective stances, such as politeness? Why have issues of gendered speech been so central in public discourse, and how are they reflected and refracted in language use as social practice? This book examines Japanese sociolinguistic phenomena from a fascinating new perspective, focusing on the historical construction of language norms and its relationship to actual language use in contemporary Japan. This socio-historically sensitive account stresses the different choices which have shaped Japanese and Western sociolinguistics and how varieties of Japanese, honorifics and politeness, and gendered language have emerged in response to the socio-political landscape in which a modernizing Japan found itself.