It has been said that the thought processes and attitudes of Japanese people are distinctly different from those of people of the Western culture. From the perspective of an anthropologist and a Japanese expatriate, the author argues that the thoughts and attitudes of Japanese are profoundly correlated with pressure to conform to social norms and nationalism, which are not usually discussed or apparent to outsiders. This paper describes Japanese culture and attempts to explain the conceptual differences in some major ideas between Japanese and Westerns. It also analyzes how Japanese language, education, and religions intertwine with each other, function, and are used as ideologies for building Japanese nationalism and shaping Japanese people. This paper is divided into four major sections: (1) The People and Nation of Japan, (2) The Religion of Japan, (3) The Socialization of Japanese Values and Nationalism, and (4) Social Conformity and Nationalism Today.
This wide-ranging, multidisciplinary collection of essays analyzes the social, political, economic and ideological impact of the forces of globalization, and of the nationalist responses to these, in major Asian nations from India, Malaysia and Indonesia to China and Japan. Among the key issues explored are the globalization of Hindu nationalism, the ideological struggle in East Asia between nationalists and the advocates of a pan-Asian civilization, the repercussions for Asian nations of the recentpan-Asian financial crisis, the rise of neo-nationalism in late-twentieth-century Japan, the Chinese nationalist response to Western economic domination, and the conflict between ethnic nationalism and national unity in Malaysia, Indonesia and Fiji.
Humans are social beings who spend most of their lives in the presence of other people.Our existence revolves around social interactions(Taylor, Peplau & Sears, 2003;Singleman & Rider, 2006).Through socialization we identify with a social group or individuals. We learn to value the attitudes, positions and opinions held by our social group. Hence, social influence is a central part of human behaviour(Taylor, Peplau & Sears,2003).Asch‘s work had a profound interest on how psychologist think about and study social influence(Levine, 1999).Asch focused his attention at the individual level and may have slowed down interest in social interactions or group processes(Leyens & Cornelle, 1999).This dissertation builds on Asch‘s study of social influence in groups, by examining how normative factors (status) affect the conformity situation,and its ability to override the Asch paradigm (majority- minority condition).It also aimed at investigating whether individuals conform premised on the Asch paradigm (majority-minority condition),or based on the existence of social categories.
This book examines the construction of Hindu nationalism and Hindu identity from a social-psychological perspective. More particularly, it attempts to provide a psychoanalytic account of factors that have aroused Hindu nationalism and the strategy Hindu nationalists have employed to bring about group cohesion since the 1980s, adding to existing studies that rely on social and political aspects. This book will be helpful for general readers who are interested in Hindu nationalism in India.
Buddhism was a fact of life and death during the Tokugawa period (1600-1868): every household was expected to be affiliated with a Buddhist temple, and every citizen had to be given a Buddhist funeral. The enduring relationship between temples and their affiliated households gave rise to the danka system of funerary patronage. This private custom became a public institution when the Tokugawa shogunate discovered an effective means by which to control the populace and prevent the spread of ideologies potentially dangerous to its power - especially Christianity. Despite its lack of legal status, the danka system was applied to the entire population without exception; it became for the government a potent tool of social order and for the Buddhist establishment a practical way to ensure its survival within the socioeconomic context of early modern Japan. In this study, Nam-lin Hur follows the historical development of the danka system and details the intricate interplay of social forces, political concerns, and religious beliefs that drove this "economy of death" and buttressed the Tokugawa governing system. With meticulous research and careful analysis, Hur demonstrates how Buddhist death left its mark firmly upon the world of the Tokugawa Japanese.
This book provides a new approach to the understanding of economic policy reform by placing it in the context of the perennial conflict between the two historical social forces of economic globalization and economic nationalism and examines successive attempts over the last half century to change the roles of state and market in the management of the Indian economy.
Nationalism and the Crowd in Liberal Hungary, 1848 –1914
Religion and Nationalism in Iraq – A Comparative Perspective
This book is an attempt to propose new directions for Christian theology in India in the present context of globalization and militant Hindu nationalism. In recent years, Christians have been the target of violent attacks by militant Hindu nationalists. Critically analyzing the history of Christianity and militant Hindu nationalism in India, this book contends that militant Hindu nationalism originated in the context of Western colonialism, which brought about a crisis of religious, cultural, and national identity among Hindus. Moreover, contemporary globalization is perceived as recreating “colonization-like” situations, only now at a staggering speed and on a global level.The contemporary attacks on Christians by militant Hindu nationalists must be understood within the dynamics of globalization. The Church in India needs to respond to this crisis. The author proposes that through a renewed theological initiative based on the three traditional areas of focus of Indian theology – inculturation, interreligious dialogue, and social justice - the Church can become genuinely Indian and address the crisis arising from globalization and militant Hindu nationalism.