Present study is in progress since 1990-91 at Crop Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S.Nagar (Uttaranchal) to study the long term effects of herbicide use in rice-wheat system. Treatments consisted of combinations of butachlor at 1.5 kg ha-1,hand weeding (30 and 60 days after transplanting) and weedy check in rice and each kharif season treatment followed by isoproturon at 1.0 kg ha-1,hand weeding twice (30 and 60 days after sowing) and weedy check in wheat. Experiment was laid out in randomized block design, with nine treatments and three replications. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, medium in organic carbon, low in available nitrogen and medium in available phosphorus and potassium with neutral soil reaction. The various studies conducted during Kharif and rabi season of 2003-04 and 2004-05 are presented here.
Asian subtropics occupies 21 million hectares of rice-wheat cropping system on their fertile soils. This system carried out on 15 million hectares with highly significant impact for food safety in the area, providing staple food for more than 415 million people.Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has the highest position in food grains in Pakistan: 66% of the total area under food grains is wheat and it contributes 74% of the total food grain production.Tillage is done according to the soil types. Delay in wheat sowing is the result of 6-8 ploughing with planking and loss of high energy.Timely wheat planting after rice ensured in 10 percent higher wheat grain yield in a rice-wheat cropping system.Drilling of wheat in to rice residue using zero tillage has eliminated the time for land preparation and improved crop stand establishment.So,this study has, therefore, been planned to achieve the most economical method for sowing wheat in a rice-wheat cropping system and Quantify the nutrient losses to soil fertility of burning rice straw. Mushtaq Ahmad Gill is the founder of zero tillage and laser land leveling technology in Pakistan and contributed a lot for this research and book.
The rice (Oryza sativa L.) - wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system occupies about 28.8 million hectares mainly spread over Asia’s five countries, namely, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and China. Organic farming offers alternative system for sustainable production and natural resource system. The aim of nutrient management in organic systems is to optimize the use of on–farm resources and minimize losses. Organic materials such as farmyard manure, compost, vermicompost, biogas slurry, green manures, crop residues, biofertilizers and cover crops are other valuable source of nutrients to improve the growth and yield attributes, yields, nutrient uptake, grain quality and soil fertility. The present book is a part of studies which is conducted to determine the optimum combination organic manures crop residues and biofertilizers for meeting nutritional requierment of rice-wheat and rice-wheat-mungbean cropping systems. It also focuses on studying the impact of organic farming practices on the health of soil, quality of organically grown products in order to find out economics of organic farming of rice-based cropping systems.
This book “Crop Residue Management in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” has written for plant nutrient management in rice - wheat cropping system with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The rice-wheat cropping system is one of most widely practiced cropping system in India as well as across the world. The nutrient management in this system is a big task; both crops are heavy nutrient feeder. It requires nutrient cycling from organic residues to maintain nutrient balance in soil. Addition of organic matter to the soil through the return of crop residues also improves soil structure, influences soil water, air and temperature relation, helps to control runoff and erosion and makes tillage easier. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources would be essential for sustainability of the rice-wheat system. This book provides the information about NPK nutrient balance and crop performance under crop residue management practices.
Conclusions drawn on the basis of the results obtained in the present investigation are stated below: 1. Combined application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 (kg ha-1) was the best dose of nutrients in hybrid rice under rice-wheat cropping system which produced highest grain yield (78.91and 75.00 qha-1durng both the years, respectively). It also improved soil fertility status measured as the available N,P,K,S and Zn. 2. For wheat after hybrid rice crop, the application of N150P60K120 kg ha-1 was found most suitable 3. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice showed residual effect on succeeding wheat crop as reflected in respect to grain and straw yields and all the nutrient treatment also improved soil fertility. 4. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T1) increased soil available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and zinc after harvest of each crop. 5. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn0 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T8) was the best treatment and found most economical followed by T1.
CONCLUSION Thus; it is concluded that application of CF in combination with organic sources like green manure and farmyard manure 50: 50 ratio gave best result in respect of grain yield, net return, B: C ratio and nutrient status in soil. The CF (100 % recommended dose of fertilizer), if used in balanced manner are also effective and at par yield with INM. However, integrated nutrient management found to be better option for maintaining soil health. If farmers' do not afford for 100 % recommended dose of fertilizer, he is advised to curtail fertilizer dose in balance manner upto 50 % instead of increasing the dose of single nutrient (particularly N) and use organic source of nutrient to some extent. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH WORK In the light of experience gain during the course of investigation and results obtained, the following points should be given due consideration in future studies. 1) Locally computerized simulation models needs to be developed to supply nutrients to rice in a synchronous manner with minimum nutrient losses. 2) The change in physical properties of soil in relation to micronutrient due to CFs and INM over the years need to be studied.
Rice-Wheat cropping system covers about 11 m ha in India, is the backbone of India's food security. This cropping system produces as high as 12.8 to 17.0 t/ha/annum at different levels of cultivation and is highly nutrient depleting but the factors responsible for success of this system are good economic return, market infrastructural support and very little risk making increasingly popular with the farmers over the years. The introduction of the non-sensitive, input responsive, relatively early maturing varieties of rice and wheat in the mid 60's enabled farmers to intensify land use and increased the acreage under this important cropping system. In recent years, there is a problem to sustain the high yield levels of rice-wheat in India. Several factors including attack of insect pests and diseases are considered responsible for stagnation in productivity of this cropping system. The present investigations were, therefore, carried out with a view to monitor insect pests, diseases and natural enemies operating in rice and wheat ecosystems and to develop an effective bio intensive management strategy to contain population buildup of major insect pests and diseases of rice and wheat.
Rice-wheat cropping system in Pakistan covers almost 2 million hectares and pre-dominantly spreads across districts of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Norowal and Shiekhupura in Punjab. The present study was taken up as a start of a long-term study of fungal pathogens in rice-wheat cropping system in Pakistan in order to understand the biology of these, so that the knowledge so gained could be used to develop a strong disease management based largely on the host resistance. The study concentrated on root rot and foliar blight and associated fungi that were common to rice and wheat primarily. It has provided basic information on the prevalence and incidence of these diseases in the main four districts of rice-wheat areas of Punjab namely Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Narowal and Sialkot. Fungi from root, foliage and soil in both wheat and rice crop were isolated and identified and their aggressiveness studied using pathogenicity analysis. Isolates of these fungi were genetically characterized using RAPD''s. The investigations were based on two surveys of wheat one in 1999 and other in 2000 done at the booting and heading stage of the crop covering 21 and 20 key locations of the area, respectively.
Dr. Y.V.Singh, Senior Scientist (Agronomy), IARI,New Delhi, India, has developed protocol for Basmati rice cultivation through organic management for sustainable productivity and better quality. In this protocol he used four (Blue green algae @ 2.0 kg/ha, Azolla @ 1.0t/ha/ Azotobacter @ 0.5 kg/ha, vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha and Farm yard manure @ 5.0 t/ha) organic inoculants to meet the nutrient requirement of organic Basmati rice-wheat-green gram system and got
This book “Long Term Effect of Fertilizers and Manure on Nutrient Uptake of Wheat” has written for describing the role of manure & fertilizers in wheat productivity in long term perspective. The manure provides plant nutrient for longer period to crop and improve physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. It uses an old practice in crop production and fertility improvement. If all the manure is recycled through agriculture can help in saving of chemical fertilizers. The nutrient management in crop production is a big task. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources like manure would be essential for sustainable agriculture. This book provides the information about availability of manure & fertilizers and their role in nutrient dynamics in soil.
Now a days herbicides effect on targeted and non-targeted organisms increasing commonly and burning point for discussion. This herbicidal effect on non-targeted crops is one of the most serious environmental problems and limiting the plant productivity and challenging human health. Wheat, the king of cereals, is used as major food source all over the world. The tremendous growth of population and demand of food security for the growing population, need to increase the yield in very less time and in limited land without weeds. Modern agriculture means production of cereal crops without weeds by application of herbicides for wheat as well as other crops. The excessive use of herbicides to increase the yield in crop field enhances the level of toxicity in the environment. High availability of herbicides in the soil, drainage, plant system and other organisms make them potential toxic substance and adversely affecting the morphology, physiology, biochemical and cytological injuries. Herbicide application requires permanent investigations, tradition and long term prediction, to enable not only good business for production but high productivity, high value food obtainment.
Diversification and intensification of cropping systems has been area of interest for many research students throughout the world.Rice based cropping systems are the most prevalent and many experiments are done with these both technically and by patterns in farming. This is a book on one such case study carried out on intensification and diversification of rice based cropping system in Kymore plateau and Satpura hill zones in central India.Traditionally the region practices rice-wheat or rice-chickpea cropping systems which have affected soil fertility, productivity etc in an adverse manner. This book covers a system where leguminous crops,oilseed crops, spices etc are included to diversify the cropping system. Also it studies intensification by taking more than two crops annually. This book should be a great read for research students and scholars working on cropping systems.
Among intercropping practices mixed cropping deals with growing two or more crops simultaneously with no distinct row arrangement. In this book, barley-wheat mixed cropping studies under various moisture deficit stress levels revealed that mixed cropping improves productivity, water use efficiency and stability. Barley matured early and absorbed much of its water at early stages, leaving more space for late maturing wheat in the mixtures. Therefore, mixed cropping of these two crop species helps combine important characters in a cropping system so as to enhance productivity through complementary resource uses in the drylands. Thus mixed cropping of barley and wheat can be an insurance to stabilize productivity and water use efficiency, and minimize crop failure risks in stresses of drought and high temperature spells that are difficult to predict in dryland areas. The results also suggest that variety development is a necessity to cope with high temperature stresses of the lowlands or for such stresses caused by climate change. The book can serve as knowledge input to organic farming, researchers, teachers and agricultural development extension workers.
Survival of Little Seed Canary Grass: The little seed canary grass is one of the notorious weeds in the rice-wheat cropping systems in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and elsewhere. The management practices advised to farmers have often failed to control this weed. With significant impact on wheat yields, the weed has become news in the popular and scientific media. In order to design and implement an effective weed management regime, it is very important that the biology of the weed is well understood. In this respect, the survival mechanism of the little seed canary grass and its seed is studied in the rice- wheat cropping conditions where alternative drying and wetting conditions prevail. Designed to understand the seed survival and germination patterns under different soil and cropping conditions, this study, has provided valuable insights into the seed survival conditions for the little seed canary grass and could provide a means to design better crop management practices. This book will be useful for students, researchers and practitioners who are interested in the subject of weed management in general and in rice-wheat cropping systems in specific.
This empirical study examined the impact of food price hike on household food security at different income levels of the people in Bangladesh. The study extensively used national household income, expenditure, and food consumption survey data of Bangladesh together with the weekly time series data on price of rice and wheat. Households having higher share of income on food consumption were found to be the worst affected by the price rise. To understand how international price rise is transmitted into domestic foodgrain market in Bangladesh, cointegration analysis and Error Correction Model were used. The result confirms the existence of long-term equilibrium relationship between international and domestic market price of rice while wheat price did not. Error Correction Model was used to see the short term dynamics as well as long term information of rice price. Although impact of rising rice price in the international market has not been realised immediately in the domestic market due to different price stabilizing programmes and policies of the government of Bangladesh, rising price of rice in international market has long term impact on Bangladesh market.