Sufis had built not only a special relation with God but with human being and its environment as well. In relation to its environment, Sufis entered into the political arena and encourage the people to protest colonial domination. This also happened in Aceh, an area located in the northern part of Sumatra Island, Indonesia. This book tries to trace positive relationship between Sufism and the strong spirit of the Acehnese against the colonial imperialism which was approved by long holy war (1873-1942). This book elaborates three important aspects in detail. First, analyzing the Achehnese practice Sufism during the war with the Dutch. Second, interpreting the important role of Sufism in the context of strong protest to the Dutch colonial administration. Third, analyzing some factors that influenced the Achehnese to perform holy war. By analyzing the Sufi tradition, political protest, and local culture, this book is very useful for those who are interested in studying Islam, history, and cultural anthropology.
Focussing on the life and work of Abraham Maimonides (1186-1237), son of Moses Maimonides, the book considers the interaction between Judaism and Islam in thirteenth-century Egypt.
Unlike the views of the fundamental Muslims, Allah is not a definable and fixed concept. Focusing on the concept of God in Sufism (Islamic Mysticism) while examining the poetry of Rumi (a 13th-century mystic), this study presents an opposition to orthodox thoughts by picturing Allah's unwillingness to admit the closures of the systematic religion. The framework of Rumi’s vision will be discussed in the context of Deconstruction with reference to Jacque Derrida's works.
Sufism or tasawwuf (Arabic ????) is mystical and ascetic branch of Islam and one of the main in classical Islamic philosophy. There are several hypotheses for the origin of the words tasawwuf and Sufi. Common is the view expressed even medieval Muslim authors, according to the word Sufi comes from the Arabic “suf” (Arabic ??? - wool) It has long been a rough woolen garment was common attribute of ascetics and hermits, “God's people” and mystics. Sufis often erect its etymology to the root of the word “safa” (purity), “Sifat” (property) or to the expression “Ahl al-Suffa” (“people of the bench, or overhang”), which has been used in relation to the poor companions of the Prophet Muhammad, who lived in his mosque in Medina, and is distinguished by its austerity. Sufism has developed within Islam, almost nothing take from Muslim sources, but absorbed the experience mystical and ascetic practices and philosophy of Eastern Christianity. Sufism regardless of the volume of borrowings from neo-Platonism, Gnosticism, Christian mysticism or from other systems, we can consider the as “inner-Islam doctrine, mystery underlying the Koran”.
The Globalization of Martyrdom – Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks
The Globalization of Martyrdom – Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks
Comparative studies are veritable tools for unearthing similarities and differences between things, trends, phenomena and occurrences in the social world. Similarly, it has become a very important tool for literary analysis especially in attempts to look for parallels and divergences either between individual writers, groups or periods. The ultimate goal is to bring what is being compared into a sharp and critical focus with the intention of heightening the interest of scholars and laymen alike, so as to pay special attention to what is being considered. Hence, comparative study becomes another way of ‘defamiliarising’ the familiar in literary studies. This dissertation is an attempt in that direction. Hence in this dissertation I intend to compare two seemingly dissimilar groups with the intention of bringing their similarities into a sharp focus. It is very obvious that Sufism and English Romanticism are different. Yet, there are areas in which the two are so much alike as to warrant this kind of study.
This book analyses the Ambon conflict, and discussed the reconciliation process by which the conflict was resolved. It argues that there were two significant factors in the conflict. First, ethno-religious segregation existed in the Ambonese islands from pre-colonial times until the present. Second, a culture of premanism existed whereby gangs, thugs, and laskars with the support of State elements (including security forces) were able to incite ethno-religious conflict. Both ‘state premanism’, played a pivotal role in instigating and continuing the conflict by provoking both the Muslim and Christian communities to attack each other. Mainstream Ambonese Muslims and Christian were eager to forge a reconciliation. They had attempted to do so from the early stages of the conflict in January 1999 up until the Malino II agreement in February 2002. Muslims and Christians proposed the strategy of re-implementing the Pela Gandong tradition as a basis for inter-ethnic or inter-religious harmony. Measures to ensure equality of public access to political positions and economic resources for both the Muslims and Christians communities had to be negotiated.
A clear-sighted first-hand account of the origins, growth and aims of Islamic State, the failure of the West’s response and what needs to happen next. Completely updated in the wake of the Paris attacks, with a new chapter and preface about the evolving threat that ISIS poses, and how the West should respond.
Doris Lessing, the Persian-born, African-raised and London-residing writer enjoys a writing career which has spanned more than 50 years. Critics have labeled her as Marxist, feminist, Sufist and even psycho-analyst. Studies on Lessing point to a definite watershed between her pre-Sufi and post-Sufi works. It is my contention that latent Sufi characteristics are inherent in her works.To prove that even Lessing’s early works contain Sufi characteristics. the chapters have been arranged in reverse order by looking at her later fictions first, and then returning to her early works in the later section. A total of 8 novels are analysed here in general. The methodology appropriated entails tracing these elements in Lessing’s works which are overtly Sufistic, to works which are in transition and finally retracing them in her first novel. The book shows that Sufism has always been present in her works, this book departs from other critics and researchers who examine Lessing’s works in more general terms since the use of a non-western perspective actually enriches understanding of Lessing who is mainly read from eurocentric points of view.
This study examines the connection between Islamic religious education and terrorism. It looks at the curricula of the Azherite religious schools in Egypt. It examines how the curricula view the three themes of Jihad which are offensive Jihad, defensive Jihad, and Jihad for the purification of the soul besides the relations of Muslims with non-Muslims. Books which are used by violent Jihadist groups for membership acquisition and cadre training are also studied for Jihad themes and relations with non-Muslims. The analysis shows that the curricula are, generally speaking, a peaceful one in its principal direction, since it obviously calls for defensive Jihad and not offensive Jihad. Often, it deals with important concepts of Jihad within the confines of such subjects as the Jihad for the purification of the soul [the Greater Jihad]. Some textbooks included lessons on “Peace in Islam” and advocated the fact that peace is the origin in Islamic Shari’a and war is the exception and it is fought only for defensive reasons.
In the polarized world of today, human being seems to be nomadic towards chaos, intolerance and violence. People are divided on the lines of religion, colour, race, language, faith, sects, caste creed and many other differences. In order to understand the problems of the modern era like growing trends of hostility, insecurity, extremism, and terrorism in our societies which have broken the social fabric. In this scenario, we need a comprehensive ideology to defeat these challenges and to bring the peace and harmony in the world. The Mystics or Sufis believe that God is ‘Love’ so the man created in His image should also be a symbol of love without hatred, bias and enmity. Their ideology does not oppose or reject to any other ideology, faith but its main ideal is to accept diversity and remove differences. Religious extremism in Pakistan is in the fold, but the majority in the country believes in religious tolerance and reconciliation. In this context, many people are in favour of the Sufi ideas or trends. The phenomenon of Sufism or Mysticism has been used as an approach to evade from hated and violent tendency to reorient our society back on the track to peace and prosperity.
The book ‘BHAKTI & SUFISM-New Spheres’ is about Bhakti and Sufism in Indian society. The Bhakti movement originated in ancient Tamil Nadu. It began to spread to the north during the late medieval ages when north India was under Islamic rule. During the 14th -17th centuries, a great Bhakti movement swept through central and northern India, initiated by a loosely associated group of saints. Ramananda, Ravidas, Sankardeva, Chaitanya Surdas, Meera , Kabir, Tulsidas, Tukaram and other mystics spearheaded the Bhakti movement in the North while Annamacharya, Ramadas, Tyagaraja among others propagated Bhakti in the South. Sufism belong to different ‘orders’-congregations formed around a master-which meet for spiritual sessions (majalis), in meeting places known as zawiyahs, Khanqahs. Sufi orders may trace many of their original precepts from the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, with the notable exception of the Naqshbandi who trace their origins through the first Caliph, Abu Bakr. Prominent orders include Chishti, Khalwati, Naqshbandi, Nimatullahi, Oveyssi, Qalandariyya, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya and Suhrawardiyya. The effort is to highlight Bhakti and Sufism participation in Indian society.