The up-to-DATE guide to name reactions in heterocyclic chemistry Name Reactions in Heterocyclic Chemistry II presents a comprehensive treatise on name reactions in heterocyclic chemistry, one of the most exciting—and important—fields within organic chemistry today. The book not only covers fresh ground, but also provides extensive information on new and/or expanded reactions in: Three- and four-membered heterocycles Five-membered heterocycles (pyrroles and pyrrolidines, indoles, furans, thiophenes, and oxazoles) Six-membered heterocycles, including pyridines, quinolines, and isoquinolines Featuring contributions from the leading authorities in heterocyclic chemistry. Each section includes a description of the given reaction, as well as the relevant historical perspective, mechanism, variations and improvements, synthetic utilities, experimental details, and references to the current primary literature. The reactions covered in Name Reactions in Heterocyclic Chemistry have been widely adopted in all areas of organic synthesis, from the medicinal/pharmaceutical field, to agriculture, to fine chemicals, and the book brings the most cutting-edge knowledge to practicing synthetic chemists and students, along with the tools needed to synthesize new and useful molecules.
Heterocyclic chemistry is of prime importance as a sub-discipline of Organic Chemistry, as millions of heterocyclic compounds are known with more being synthesized regularly Introduces students to heterocyclic chemistry and synthesis with practical examples of applied methodology Emphasizes natural product and pharmaceutical applications Provides graduate students and researchers in the pharmaceutical and related sciences with a background in the field Includes problem sets with several chapters
Until recently the low-coordinate compounds of the heavier elements of group 14 were known only as transient, unstable species which were difficult to isolate. However recent developments have led to the stabilisation of these compounds and today heavier group 14 element cations, radicals, anions, carbene analogues, alkene and alkyne analogues and aromatics have all been prepared as highly reactive, stable, fully characterizable and readily available organometallic reagents. Organometallic Compounds of Low-Coordinate Si, Ge, Sn and Pb describes the chemistry of this exciting new class of organometallics, with an emphasis on their major similarities and differences with the analogous species in organic chemistry. Topics covered include include the synthesis, structure, reactions and synthetic applications of : Si-, Ge-, Sn and Pb-centered cations, radicals and anions heavy analogues of carbenes: silylenes, germylenes, stannylenes and plumbylenes heavy analogues of alkenes: disilenes, digermenes, distannenes, diplumbenes heavy analogues of alkynes: disilynes, digermynes, distannynes, diplumbynes, and their valence isomers heteronuclear derivatives: silenes, germenes, stannenes, silagermenes, silastannenes, germastannenes heavy analogues of alkenes of the type: >E14=E13-, >E14=E15-, >E14=E16 [where E13, E14, E15 and E16 are elements of the groups 13, 14, 15 and 16] cyclic compounds (three-, four-, five-, and six-membered rings) heavy analogues of 1,3-dienes, allenes and other cumulenes heavy analogues of aromatic compounds; including a comparison between organometallic and organic aromaticity Organometallic Compounds of Low-Coordinate Si, Ge, Sn and Pb is an essential guide to this emerging class of organometallic reagents for researchers and students in main group, organometallic, synthetic and silicon chemistry
This volume of Inorganic Syntheses spans the preparations of wide range of important inorganic, organometallic and solid-state compounds. The volume is divided into 6 chapters. The first chapter contains the syntheses of some key early transition metal halide clusters and the very useful mononuclear molybdenum(III) synthon, MoCl3(THF)3. Chapter 2 covers the synthesis of a number of cyclopentadienyl compounds, including a novel route to sodium and potassium cyclopentadienide, MC5H5. Chapter 3 details synthetic procedures for a range of metal-metal bonded compounds, including several with metal-metal multiple bonds. Chapter 4 contains procedures for a range of early and late transition metal compounds, each a useful synthon for further synthetic elaboration. Chapter 5 deals with the synthesis of a number of main group compounds and ligands, while Chapter 6 covers teaching laboratory experiments.
This textbook is an accessible overview of the broad field of organic electrochemistry, covering the fundamentals and applications of contemporary organic electrochemistry. The book begins with an introduction to the fundamental aspects of electrode electron transfer and methods for the electrochemical measurement of organic molecules. It then goes on to discuss organic electrosynthesis of molecules and macromolecules, including detailed experimental information for the electrochemical synthesis of organic compounds and conducting polymers. Later chapters highlight new methodology for organic electrochemical synthesis, for example electrolysis in ionic liquids, the application to organic electronic devices such as solar cells and LEDs, and examples of commercialized organic electrode processes. Appendices present useful supplementary information including experimental examples of organic electrosynthesis, and tables of physical data (redox potentials of various organic solvents and organic compounds and physical properties of various organic solvents).
Acetylene systems present a new route to cyclic compounds as an alternative to more traditional methods employed in classical organic chemistry. The synthesis of cyclic structures based on acetylene systems has important applications in the formation of nanostructures, naturally occurring compounds and chemosensory materials for the design of nonlinear optics, electronic and photonic devices. Alkynes in Cycloadditions presents a modern review of regioselective synthesis of aromatic and non-aromatic carbocyclic and heterocyclic ring systems based primarily on [2+2+2] and [4+2] cycloadditions, and other reactions of acetylenic units including enediynes and enyne-allenes. Topics covered include: New strategies for the formation of aromatic and polynuclear hydrocarbons based on (Z)-hex-3-en-1,5-diyne and (Z)-hepta-1,2,4-triene-6-yne blocks. One-step synthesis of benzene derivatives, β-substituted naphthalenes and acenes by the cycloaromatization of enediynes and enyne-allenes by Bergman, Myers-Saito and Shmittel. Mechanisms of cycloaromatization resulting in the formation of fulvene and indene systems. Heterocyclization involving enyne-carbodiimides. New achievements in classical cycloaddition reactions such as the Diels-Alder condensation with acetylenic dienophiles and [2+2] cycloadditions with acetylene components Alkynes in Cycloadditions presents a comprehensive summary of the literature on methods for the synthesis of ring systems from acetylenes for academic researchers working in the fields of organic synthesis, physical organic chemistry, organometallic chemistry, catalysis, materials science, nanomaterials and biochemistry.
Written by an experienced editor widely acclaimed within the scientific community, this book covers everything from oxygen to nitrogen functionalities. From the contents: * Palladium-Catalyzed Syntheses of Five-Membered Saturated Heterocycles * The Formation of Carbon-Sulfur and Carbon-Selenium Bonds by Substitution and Addition Reactions Catalyzed by Transition Metal Complexes * Palladium-Catalysis for Oxidative 1,2-Difunctionalization of Alkenes * Palladium-Catalyzed Formation of Aromatic Heterocycles * Rhodium-Catalyzed Amination of C-H-Bonds * Transition Metal-Catalyzed Synthesis of Heterocycles * Copper-Catalyzed Synthesis of Azoles * Palladium(II)-Catalyzed C-N Bond Formation Involving Aminopalladation of Aklenes * Carbon-Heteroatom Bond Formation by Rh(I)-Catalyzed Ring-Opening Reactions * Recent Advances in Homogeneous Gold Catalysis: Formation of Carbon-Heteroatom Bonds The result is an indispensable source of information for the strategic planning of the synthetic routes for organic, catalytic and medicinal chemists, as well as chemists in industry.
Here, all aspects of the topic are presented in a compact manner. The book is clearly structured, and divided into two sections – asymmetric synthesis of heterocycles containing only one nitrogen and that of those with more than one nitrogen as a heteroatom – such that the necessary information may be found at a glance. The international team of authors provides important experimental procedures, including industrial applications. Essential for synthetic chemists in pharmaceutical and agrochemical chemistry.
Enables researchers to fully realize the potential to discover new pharmaceuticals among heterocyclic compounds Integrating heterocyclic chemistry and drug discovery, this innovative text enables readers to understand how and why these two fields go hand in hand in the effective practice of medicinal chemistry. Contributions from international leaders in the field review more than 100 years of findings, explaining their relevance to contemporary drug discovery practice. Moreover, these authors have provided plenty of practical guidance and tips based on their own academic and industrial laboratory experience, helping readers avoid common pitfalls. Heterocyclic Chemistry in Drug Discovery is ideal for readers who want to fully realize the almost limitless potential to discover new and effective pharmaceuticals among heterocyclic compounds, the largest and most varied family of organic compounds. The book features: Several case studies illustrating the role and application of 3, 4, 5, and 6+ heterocyclic ring systems in drug discovery Step-by-step descriptions of synthetic methods and practical techniques Examination of the physical properties for each heterocycle, including NMR data and quantum calculations Detailed explanations of the complexity and intricacies of reactivity and stability for each class of heterocycles Heterocyclic Chemistry in Drug Discovery is recommended as a textbook for organic and medicinal chemistry courses, particularly those emphasizing heterocyclic chemistry. The text also serves as a guide for medicinal and process chemists in the pharmaceutical industry, offering them new insights and new paths to explore for effective drug discovery.
Edited and authored by top international experts, this first book on conjugated polymers with a focus on synthesis provides a detailed overview of all modern synthetic methods for these highly interesting compounds. As such, it describes every important compound class, including polysilanes, organoboron compounds, and ferrocene-containing conjugated polymers. An indispensable source for every synthetic polymer chemist.
Fully updated and expanded to reflect recent advances, the sixth edition of this bestselling text provides students and professional chemists with a comprehensive introduction to the principles and general properties of organometallic compounds, as well as including practical information on reaction mechanisms and detailed descriptions of contemporary applications. Increased focus is given to organic synthesis applications, nanoparticle science, and green chemistry. This edition features: New sections on Multifunctional Ligands, Oxidation Catalysis, and Green Chemistry Expanded discussion on topics from the fifth edition: Supramolecular Chemistry, N-Heterocyclic Carbenes, Coupling Reactions, Organometallic Materials, Applications to Organic Synthesis, and Bioorganometallic Chemistry End-of-chapter problems and their solutions
Compiles current tested and proven approaches to synthesize novel nucleoside analogues Featuring contributions from leading synthetic chemists from around the world, this book brings together and describes tested and proven approaches for the chemical synthesis of common families of nucleoside analogues. Readers will learn to create new nucleoside analogues with desired therapeutic properties by using a variety of methods to chemically modify natural nucleosides, including: Changes to the heterocyclic base Modification of substituents at the sugar ring Replacement of the furanose ring by a different carbo- or heterocyclic ring Introduction of conformational restrictions Synthesis of enantiomers Preparation of hydrolitically stable C-nucleosides Chemical Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues covers all the major classes of nucleosides, including pronucleotides, C-nucleosides, carbanucleosides, and PNA monomers which have shown great promise as starting points for the synthesis of nucleoside analogues. The book also includes experimental procedures for key reactions related to the synthesis of nucleoside analogues, providing a valuable tool for the preparation of a number of different compounds. Throughout the book, chemical schemes and figures help readers better understand the chemical structures of nucleoside analogues and the methods used to synthesize them. Extensive references serve as a gateway to the growing body of original research studies and reviews in the field. Synthetically modified nucleosides have proven their value as therapeutic drugs, in particular as antiviral and antitumor agents. However, many of these nucleoside analogues have undesirable side effects. With Chemical Synthesis of Nucleoside Analogues as their guide, researchers have a new tool for synthesizing a new generation of nucleoside analogues that can be used as therapeutic drugs with fewer unwanted side effects.
Stable radicals – molecules with odd electrons which are sufficiently long lived to be studied or isolated using conventional techniques – have enjoyed a long history and are of current interest for a broad array of fundamental and applied reasons, for example to study and drive novel chemical reactions, in the development of rechargeable batteries or the study of free radical reactions in the body. In Stable Radicals: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects of Odd-Electron Compounds a team of international experts provide a broad-based overview of stable radicals, from the fundamental aspects of specific classes of stable neutral radicals to their wide range of applications including synthesis, materials science and chemical biology. Topics covered include: triphenylmethyl and related radicals polychlorinated triphenylmethyl radicals: towards multifunctional molecular materials phenalenyls, cyclopentadienyls, and other carbon-centered radicals the nitrogen oxides: persistent radicals and van der Waals complex dimers nitroxide radicals: properties, synthesis and applications the only stable organic sigma radicals: di-tert-alkyliminoxyls. delocalized radicals containing the hydrazyl [R2N-NR] unit metal-coordinated phenoxyl radicals stable radicals containing the thiazyl unit: synthesis, chemical, and materials properties stable radicals of the heavy p-block elements application of stable radicals as mediators in living-radical polymerization nitroxide-catalyzed alcohol oxidations in organic synthesis metal-nitroxide complexes: synthesis and magneto-structural correlations rechargeable batteries using robust but redox-active organic radicals spin labeling: a modern perspective functional in vivo EPR spectroscopy and imaging using nitroxides and trityl radicals biologically relevant chemistry of nitroxides Stable Free Radicals: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects of Odd-Electron Compounds is an essential guide to this fascinating area of chemistry for researchers and students working in organic and physical chemistry and materials science.
Selenium-based methods in synthetic chemistry have developed rapidly over the past years and are now offering highly useful tools for organic synthesis. Filling the gap for a comprehensive handbook and ready reference, this book covers all modern developments within the field, including biochemical aspects. The chemistry chapters are organized according to the different reactivities of various selenium compounds and reagents, with each chapter dealing with a special reaction type. Also includes a table with 77Se NMR shifts to aid in practical problems. From the Contents: * Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Selenium * Selenium Compounds in Radical Reactions * Selenium-Stabilized Carbanions * Selenium Compounds with Valency Higher than Two * Selenocarbonyls * Selenoxide Elimination and [2,3]-Sigmatropic Rearrangement * Selenium Compounds as Ligands and Catalysts * Biological and Biochemical Aspects of Selenium Compounds
A guide to the extraction, isolation and purification of bioactive compounds from agricultural wastes, and their applications Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Agricultural Wastes offers a guide to the many uses of agricultural wastes from the production of major food types including tea, coffee, cacao, cashew, fruit and vegetables, wine, edible oils, sugar, starch and more. Written by a noted expert in the field, the text explores the various methods for extraction, isolation and purification of bioactive compounds from agricultural wastes. The author also makes recommendations concerning the most effective applications of bioactive compounds and discusses the economics and market for recovered bioactive compounds. Recent studies reveal that bioactive compounds have been directly linked to biological activity such as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-cardiovascular capacities, etc. In particular, agricultural wastes are considered as potential and inexpensive sources of bioactive compounds. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Agricultural Wastes fills a gap in the literature by providing a text that explores this important topic and examines the: Sustainability of waste management and shows how to extract, isolate and purify bioactive compounds from agricultural wastes, and their most effective application Wide range of agricultural food produce that can be processed and the special techniques used for recovering the bioactive compounds from these sources Health applications of bioactive compounds that have been directly linked to pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anticancer, and more Designed for use by researchers and producers in the agriculture, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Agricultural Wastes contains the knowledge, history and definition, classification and synthesis, and extraction techniques of bioactive compounds.