Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important cereal crop for a large number of countries in the world. It provides about 20% of total food calories for the human race.It is widely grown through the temperate zone and in some tropical and sub-tropical areas at higher elevation. It can be grown on a variety of soils ranging from sandy to heavy clay, for higher production fertile and well-drained loam to clay loam soil is most suitable. The major wheat growing countries in the world are USSR, USA, China, India, Canada, Australia, France, Turkey, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Among the major cereal grown in India, wheat stands second next to rice in area and production, but first in productivity among all the cereals. System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) popularly known as Sri Vidhi Gehun is different methodology for cultivation of Wheat. Its root goes in SRI principle being practiced in paddy. Here also all agronomic principles are put into practices and integrated with package of practices in wheat crop.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) a major cereal crop has been cultivated in India. The way India increased its wheat production and helped the food security system through “Wheat Revolution” is worth to be remembered. It was that the wheat revolution and green revolution have made its self sufficient in food grains and that there will be no going back to old import days, when the food economy was either ‘ship to mouth’ or ‘field to mouth’. The potential of high yielding varieties, the development of special non-monetary management practices like sowing methods is a prime need that promotes the efficient utilization of nutrients, water and space, reduces the cost of cultivation (mainly labourers, wage), save the seed and fertilizers, causes easiness in rouging in the seed production and inter-cultural operation, better control of seeds, insect pest and diseases. To workout suitable method of sowing, variety and time of nitrogen application under late sown crop which could perform well in an important food crop of the area. This book has covered the information on different aspects of Wheat cultivation. This book will of immense value to the students, teachers and research workers.
Wheat crop being the world''s leading cereal crop has the major role in the hunger reduction from the mushrooming world population. With the development of high yielding varieties and new technologies, the production and productivity since late 1970s has increased significantly up to this date. Still there are various yield limiting factors and one of them is the late-sowing condition especially in the agro-zones where rice-wheat system prevails. In the recent context of climate change and global warming, the production practices of many crops have been pushed to gradually change. In the rice-wheat system of cropping pattern, late sowing of wheat is becoming a common phenomenon and for any reason of late sowing, suitable variety/genotype selection with proper fertilization especially only nitrogen management can be the boon to greatly boost up the production and net returns from wheat cultivation. This book is especially important to those who are willing to conduct research activity in the field of crop science & wheat agronomy, farmers, students, academicians and development professionals.
Banana is an important staple commodity for developing countries, apart from wheat,rice or corn, hence its relevance for food security.Being adapted to grow under low light intensities, banana plants can withstand shade and hence are highly suitable for high density planting.The spatial arrangement of plants in a plantation is very important & usually involves a choice between physiological efficiency and practical utility.Increasing spacing between pits and planting more than one sucker per pit will help to reduce the cost of cultivation &enable inter cropping thereby improving total returns.Selection of crops for inter cropping and the geometry of planting should be designed in such a way that land, water & solar energy are fully utilized. Banana being a heavy remover of nutrients, high yields of quality bananas can only be sustained through application of optimal doses of nutrients in balanced proportion. Existing technologies of nutrient supply are to be refined for judicious use to enhance the profitability under double sucker planting as increased manurial dose may not be required for increased number of suckers per pit.Modified HDP with efficient use of inputs are explored.
The main object of this book is to provide the knowledge to the poor marginal Rice growing farmers of West Bengal as Rice is the most important cereal crop in this state. But increasing in cost of cultivation in terms of fertilizer, pesticide as well as agriculture-labour the net profit gain of the poor rice growers are gradually decreasing. This book is providing the information regarding System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as an new alternative source of rice cultivation with increasing productivity and profit and minimizing the environmental hazard.
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the staple food crop of Pakistan and is being grown over a wide range of environments. Grain yields of wheat are highly affected due to biotic and abiotic stresses. Water stress is the main environmental constraints besides high temperature and salinity stress. New high yielding wheat varieties possesses better tolerance to drought are desperately needed for cultivation in wheat growing areas. A high yielding and drought-tolerant wheat variety Khirman has been developed and released for general cultivation in Sindh province of Pakistan. The variety has potential to produce better yield under water stressed environments. The variety has gained popularity among farming community. This book will present the case study of the release of variety ‘Khirman’. The information will be helpful for researchers, scientists and students while selection and development of new stress-tolerant genotypes.
Wheat is an important cereal crop in the world after rice because whole world fulfill their need of food from wheat crop.Now a days, farmers are getting interest in cash crop production due to higher cultivation cost in wheat production system.To offset this problem,scientists have developed some technologies.Among these technologies,Zero tillage crop production system is getting acceptance all over the world.Taking into consideration, A study was carried out on different four sowing method namely zero till drill,raised bed planter,country plough and broadcasting of seeds in sandy loam soil of North Gujarat region in India.The conclusion drawn from the study was that Zero till system is economically viable production system of wheat crop in sandy laom soil condition of the region. This book, therefore,provides all the field testing data of four different sowing method for wheat crop extensively useful for students of Agriculture,Agricultural Engineering and persons engaged in research work on Resource conservation Technologies and anyone else, who may be considering to help farm community all over the world.
Rice-Wheat cropping system covers about 11 m ha in India, is the backbone of India's food security. This cropping system produces as high as 12.8 to 17.0 t/ha/annum at different levels of cultivation and is highly nutrient depleting but the factors responsible for success of this system are good economic return, market infrastructural support and very little risk making increasingly popular with the farmers over the years. The introduction of the non-sensitive, input responsive, relatively early maturing varieties of rice and wheat in the mid 60's enabled farmers to intensify land use and increased the acreage under this important cropping system. In recent years, there is a problem to sustain the high yield levels of rice-wheat in India. Several factors including attack of insect pests and diseases are considered responsible for stagnation in productivity of this cropping system. The present investigations were, therefore, carried out with a view to monitor insect pests, diseases and natural enemies operating in rice and wheat ecosystems and to develop an effective bio intensive management strategy to contain population buildup of major insect pests and diseases of rice and wheat.
Nitrogen management and weed management are the two most important cultivation practices affecting yield and performance of wheat farming. A field experiment was conducted to find the optimum conditions, in this regard. Results showed increased nitrogen level to increase wheat performance, however, 80kg N/Ha was found optimum and economical. Hand weeding is the most effective, although, may be due to high labor cost application of herbicide (isoproturon @ 1kg a.i./Ha) was found financially beneficial. Application of nitrogen near harvest is not recommended as well as increased nitrogen was found to delay heading and hence precaution is needed. The book may be handy for all those interested in learning the relationship between wheat, weed, and nitrogen.
Dr. Y.V.Singh, Senior Scientist (Agronomy), IARI,New Delhi, India, has developed protocol for Basmati rice cultivation through organic management for sustainable productivity and better quality. In this protocol he used four (Blue green algae @ 2.0 kg/ha, Azolla @ 1.0t/ha/ Azotobacter @ 0.5 kg/ha, vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha and Farm yard manure @ 5.0 t/ha) organic inoculants to meet the nutrient requirement of organic Basmati rice-wheat-green gram system and got
Mono cropping is a dominant practice in Ethiopia, and leads to crop failure, depletion of soil nutrient, develop disease and pests, and reduce farmers income, but farmers of the country commonly use intercropping to overcome yield reduction, diversify nutrient source, improving soil fertility, and increase land use efficiency. Statistical analysis showed that intercropping of faba bean and wheat to increase biomass and seed yields, land use efficiency, monetary value, soil fertility, and minimizing of risks associated with mono cropping.
A study was conducted in wheat during rabi season 2012-13 on sandy loam soil at Crop Research Centre, Chirodi of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut (U.P.) Find out the suitable cultivars and different method of planting. To study the effect of different planting methods on growth and yield attributes of rice cultivars. To study the economics of different planting methods.
The rice-wheat production system has major role in food security in the region and provides livelihood and income to millions of farmers in IGP. The lack of suitable mechanization and modernization with proper soil-crop management strategies is probably the cause of higher cost requirement and low return in the system. Current crop cultivation practices in rice-wheat systems degrade the soil and water resources thereby threaten the sustainability. The concept of alternative agricultural system is put forward to improve in net return with minimum resource use from crop cultivation is conservation agriculture (CA) the best alternative to protect soil, water, environment, time and cost. CA practices in Nepalese context have drastically reduced tillage intensity, reducing the cost of cultivation and allowing timely sowing with comparable yield.
There is a negative sulphur balance in the arable soils of Poland due to restrictions on SO2 emissions, intensification of agricultural production, and decreased consumption of natural and mineral fertilizers. Sulphur is an essential element for the growth and development of crop plants. It has an important physiological role and protects the plant against diseases and pests. Sulphur deficiency is detrimental to the vigour of the plant and its resistance to stress and it reduces yield. "Sulphur and nitrogen fertilization of spring wheat" is a book which presents the effect of fertilization with nitrogen and sulphur on the yield and quality of spring wheat grain. It also presents the content and accumulation of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur in selected growth phases of spring wheat and proposes a method of additional sulphur and nitrogen application during critical stages. As Polish agriculture changes over to an integrated production system, it is proposed that the variant of 80 kg N/ha in conjunction with 50 kg S/ha should be recommended for use in production systems of spring wheat.
The poor quality groundwater may prove a valuable natural resource in arid and semi-arid regions, if used with suitable technologies. This book provides an ample technique and up-to-date references about the response of wheat to organic and inorganic soil amendments under irrigation with high residual sodium carbonate water. This book will be useful to the students and researchers of crop production and environmental sciences as well as to the natural resource planners and managers, especially of developing nations.