Enzymes are highly efficient environment-friendly catalysts, synthesized by living systems. They have significant advantages over chemical catalysts, of which the most important are specificity, high catalytic activity, ability to work at moderate temperatures, and the ability to be produced in large amounts. Enzymes production is a major and growing field of contemporary biotechnology. Tannin acyl hydrolase (EC 188.8.131.52) which is commonly referred to as tannase is one of the important hydrolytic microbial enzymes. Tannase is an industrially important enzyme and has several applications in various industries such as foods, animal feeds, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, chemical, leather industries etc. Realizing the importance of this enzyme, a comprehensive study focusing on its microbial production has been carried out. It aims to the isolation and screening of high tannase-producing fungi from environmental sources and statistical optimization of its production by the promising isolate using response surface methodology. This book includes all details of this study and its important results.
Bacteria and fungi are capable of producing extracellular lipases when grown on suitable substrates. Vegetable oil can become rancid if contaminated by microorganisms. However, NaCl in oil seem to inhibit microbial growth at specific concentrations for various microorganisms. The industrial production of lipases can be explored engaging bacteria, fungi and vegetable oil used in this current study.
The enhancement of plant growth by PGPR indicates their potential as biofertilizers in the field of agriculture. The potential negative effect of chemical fertilizers on the global environment and the cost associated with production has led to research with the objective of replacing chemical fertilizers with microbial inoculants. PGPR have gained world-wide importance and acceptance for sustainable agricultural benefits. PGPR's are the potential tools for future of sustainable agriculture. The application and commercialization of PGPR for sustainable agriculture is a growing and demanding market world-wide. In present work, isolation and optimization of fungi were demonstrated which can dissolve phosphate and promote growth by producing phytohormone IAA.
Fungi are responsible for producing number of diseases, including some devastating epizootics in fishes, which inflict heavy losses to fish industry. This book provides support in gaining the knowledge in this field. It will be helpful in finding out the relation of various water parameters with the growth of aquatic fungi and also helpful in controlling the incidences of mycotic diseases and thus will save the fisheries industry from economic losses.
The last few decades have seen a flurry of activity in the synthesis and development of Plant growth promoting fungi and their derivatives as biocontrol agent. Various strategies can be envisaged to synthesize by exploiting the reactivity of this organisms with their derivatives by various researchers. Biocontrol agents and its derivatives were also reported to have promising bioactivities, including antibiotic production, antibacterial, siderophore and hormoes producing properties, primary, secondary and volatile metabolites producing activities. The aim of this book is to provide a brief knowledge about plant growth promoting fungi and their derivatives. We have included the their characterization of Trichoderma citrinoviride by various biometric parameters in soybean and mungbean.
Aflatoxins (AFs) are naturally occurring secondary metabolites produced principally by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in food and feed commodities worldwide. Contaminations of compound feeds by AFs do not only affect animal health, but the economy as well. It is for this purpose that a study was carried out to establish the quality of South African feeds with respect to AF-producing fungi, establish a correlation between levels of AFs and determinant gene (nor-1) responsible for producing these toxins.
Amylase is an enzyme that hydrolyses starch for the production of ethanol and fructose. It has many applications in today''s market place. In industry, it is very advantageous to find organisms that can produce specific enzymes. Fungi being potential source of enzymes with scientific and commercial interests have a great potential to degrade polysaccharide constituents of starch. The present study was, therefore, designed to screen efficient species of fungi from already reported amylase enzyme producers. The isolates expressing maximum efficiency were exposed to UV and chemical mutagens to further enhance their enzyme production potential. Comparative bioactivity assays of mutants obtained were carried out to select the high yielding strains. Growth of potential strains was conditioned on agri-wastes products to evolve economically feasible technology for amylase production to meet industrial sector demand.
Present research work embodies collection of oil seed samples from different store houses, market places, godowns, fields from different districts of Marathwada region of Maharashtra state (India). For detection of seed mycoflora associated with seed samples, autoclaved Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Glucose Nitrate Agar (GNA), Czapek Dox Agar (CZA) and Rose Bengal Agar (RBA) media were used for isolation. Among isolated fungi, 10 fungi were screened for further study on the basis of their dominance of occurrence on oilseeds. These fungi are Alternaria dianthicola, Curvularia lunata, Curvularia pellescens, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium equiseti, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium digitatum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma viride. In another part of research work, physico-chemical changes in biodeteriorated oilseeds and oil due to storage fungi were studied. Further, some botanicals and plant products were screened to evaluate their fungitoxic properties against storage fungi.
Fungi: Biology and Applications, Second Edition provides a comprehensive treatment of fungi, covering biochemistry, genetics and the medical and economic significance of these organisms at introductory level. With no prior knowledge of the subject assumed, the opening chapters offer a broad overview of the basics of fungal biology, in particular the physiology and genetics of fungi and also a new chapter on the application of genomics to fungi. Later chapters move on to include more detailed coverage of topics such as antibiotic and chemical commodities from fungi, new chapters on biotechnological use of fungal enzymes and fungal proteomics, and fungal diseases of humans, antifungal agents for use in human therapy and fungal pathogens of plants.
Wood decay is a deterioration of wood by primarily enzymatic activities of microorganisms. For practical purposes, fungi are the only agents of wood decay. Fungi which grow on wood are sometimes called "lignicolous" fungi. But why develop a set of keys limited to fungi utilizing wood as a substrate? After all, being lignicolous does not define a taxonomic category. Lignicolous fungi include ascomycetes and basidiomycetes and a large number of classes and orders within each of these groups. Most of these taxa include both lignicolous and terrestrial species. Rather than taxonomy, the keys focus on the biological activity holding this otherwise disparate group of fungi together: their ability to degrade cellulose and lignin, the major components of wood. Forest trees and valuable landscape trees can be infected and rotted by these fungi. Knowing the species growing on a tree can help the forester determine the likely extent of loss. Different species are associated with different amounts of decay in the tree. Additionally, some species are restricted to sapwood and will not affect the merchantable volume of heartwood. Some fungi can decay sound wood; others decay only decaying wood.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in soil habitats and form beneficial symbiosis with the roots of angiosperms and other plants. Most terrestrial plants associate with root colonizing mycorrhizal fungi, which improve the fitness of both the fungal and plant associates. Distribution and abundance of AM fungi vary greatly among different sites like natural and manmade ecosystems. Natural soil offers consortium of indigenous mycorrhizal fungi and often used as source of inoculam. AM fungi can be produced on a large scale by pot culture technique. It was suggested for the commercial production of AM fungi in agricultural field management. They are also environment friendly fertilizers and do not cause the pollution of any sort.