The jihadi culture nourished during General Zia-ul- Haq''s rule, had three clear objectives: A proxy war of America against Soviet Russia in name of Jihad, a proxy war of Saudi Arabia against Shia Community and Iran and to extend his military rule. Talented secret agency of Pakistan, ISI under watchful eyes of CIA created many jihadi outfits. Later on this jihad was also ‘exported'' to Kashmir and other countries as well. These Jihadi outfits get official patronage as long as they work within the parameters set up by the establishment. Religious groups promoting jihad have very organised system of recruiting and training young people to advance the cause of Islam. Poverty stricken areas with economic deprivation are fertile ground to spread extremist views. Young children are recruited from madrassas and are looked after so well that their own living style looks much inferior. They undergo ideological indoctrination where they are told that jihad is must in life of a true Muslim; and this jihad must continue till the end of their lives or until all infidels have become Muslims.
The events of 9/11 changed the pace of the events in world politics. United States declared a war against terrorism and grasped massive support from the world community. The events of 9/11 also impacted heavily on Kashmir’s freedom movement, as India succeeded in linking the freedom struggle with terrorism. The study takes into account, among others, American interest as a factor in shaping post-9/11 developments on Kashmir issue. The author has ably • analyzed and investigated CBMs; • analyzed the Composite Dialogue; • investigated the reciprocal impact of CBMs and Composite Dialogue, and • traced out the factors militating against the substantial outcome of peace process. To the end, the author has made very practical recommendations on moving towards the solution of this long outstanding international problem.
This book discusses the background of Kashmir dispute and the origins of India-Pakistan hostilities over the issue. This issue led the two countries to war in 1947-48, this war followed by another war over Kashmir in 1965. The analysis of views of India, Pakistan and the people of Kashmir has also been done. It also highlighted the efforts made by United Nations for the resolution of Kashmir Dispute. This book also examined the role played by the major powers for the settlement of decade long issue. It also presented an overview of armed struggle for the liberation of Kashmir.The book also outlines the efforts of NGOs and think tanks for settling Kashmir issue. Due importance has been given to the will and aspiration of the people of Kashmir regarding their land. This book also attempted to analyse different prospects of settlement and the existing options to resolve Kashmir Dispute. Dr.Mamnoon Ahmad Khan has been formulized a peace process “Slow but Steady Process” to pull out the people of Kashmir from the perpetual miseries and atrocities faced by them since 1947 and and to save the people of the world from the constant threat of nuclear war.
Nuclear powers India and Pakistan have several times fought over the Kashmir region. Most Kashmiris, on the other hand have been fighting for their right of self-determination as recognized by the UNO. In the past two decades, the region has been witness to a lot of violence which has also strained the relations between India and Pakistan. There have been several rounds of talks on Kashmir between governments of India and Pakistan. Sadly, there has not been any substantial positive outcome in resolving this dispute which has international ramifications. The Kashmir dispute has been analyzed several times in terms of its impact, economical or political, on India, Pakistan and also Kashmir. An analysis through a Kashmiri point-of-view as to what the Kashmiris want and how the two decade long conflict has affected their resolve for self-determination makes for an interesting research. The books thus investigates these issues and reports on the basis of data collected in five main districts of Kashmir. The book contains a discussion of the respondents’ views and their feasibility in light of Kashmiris’ aspirations and realpolitik of south Asia.
South Asia is a water stressed region where population is mainly associated with agriculture sector. Pakistan and India who share Indus River Basin signed Indus Water Treaty in 1960. The treaty apportioned the rivers on geographical lines. The catchments of these rivers are located in Indian controlled Kashmir. The treaty sustained wars and crisis situations because India had not achieved capability to manipulate water resources. The dispute has resurfaced after India has started constructing large poundage facilities on Pakistani rivers. Water dispute is directly linked to the territorial dispute on Jammu and Kashmir. The nuclear capabilities of the two countries are a stabilizing factor but at the same time continued arms race, low flight times, absence of sufficient NTRMs, and inclusion of tactical and sub-critical weapons into nuclear arsenal are destabilizing features of the existing deterrence stability. The emerging water crisis between the two nuclear neighbors can transform into an armed conflict which can potentially jeopardize the strategic stability in the region.
The study argues that the Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan is neither an emotional issue nor purely an ideological tangle but equally, if not more so, an issue of realpolitik which is inherent in the nature of the territory of Kashmir. This dimension of the Kashmir dispute was overshadowed in the wake of the Indian move to raise the Kashmir issue at the UNSC in 1948. The importance of the territory lies in its wealth of water resources of the world''s mighty Indus River System comprising the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej rivers, serving as the ‘jugular vein'' of Pakistan''s agrarian economy. India is not prepared to lose the upper- riparian status and Pakistan is fearful of its vulnerabilities. Kashmir issue is also a question of control of the life-giving rivers in upstream originating from the territory of Kashmir, parts of which were captured by both India and Pakistan in 1948. The study highlights the linkage of the Indus rivers resource with political thinking, strategic planning and warfare between India and Pakistan in the past and comprehends its future role in the security calculus of the region.
Madaris have not been the centre of much international debates until recently, especially after 9/11. After the deadly attacks on US various terms like Muslim radicalism, Muslim fundamentalism, and Islamic fanaticism become very popular worldwide. On the other hand there was a school of thought who tried to find answers as to what could be the possible causes of this anti west feelings and from where does this hatred originate. The possible solutions of how to overcome and to avoid such like incidents from occurring in the future were being explored. Lack of education has being widely agreed factor behind this orthodox and extremist thinking. Unfortunately many of the Muslim countries like Pakistan and Afghanistan have some of the lowest literacy rates in the world. Scholars, educators and researchers have agreed that by improving the educational system of these countries might help improving the situation which nourishes and promote the growth of radical ideas and might be able to transform the citizens to the useful citizens of the society.
Extremism and terrorism are classified as the most serious threat of present. Research and development of counter-terrorism strategies have become a part of international and national organizations and private company policy. Czech Republic is region that would not be threatened by international terrorism, but extremism and terrorism is considered as significant security threat by Czech authorities because of its domestic scene. Issue of terrorism is increasingly studied using game theory. Authors argue that it is not possible to examine various conflict participants, without consideration of their reaction and interaction and game theory is tool that allows to analyzing the individual decisions. This work deals with Czech extremist and terrorist scene and possible terrorist attack on regional company. Based on available information obtained by analyzing domestic extremism and terrorism, and a description of the chosen company, model of security scenarios and rules was designed, which can be used as a support tool for decision-making. The scenarios were then tested with a suitable part of game theory.
In the last decades the automotive industry is one of the main sources of air pollution and a major consumer of oil resources. Future oil depletion and environmental damage produced by the gas emissions push automobile industry to improve traction efficiency and to reduce oil consumption and pollution.Because of this requirements, the hybrid electric vehicles have become very popular. Nowadays, it is difficult to imagine the future without hybrid electric vehicles. These days, the technological innovations have led to the increased use of new types of electrical machines in hybrid electric vehicles such as permanent magnet flux-switching machine. The main purpose of this research is to offer an overview on some electrical motors for propulsion of the hybrid electric vehicles power train. Three different electrical motors, respectively permanent magnet flux switching motor, permanent magnet synchronous motor and switched reluctance motor, are fully analyzed and the obtained results are compared, the focus being on the torque density value.
A New Chapter of the Great Game is unfolding. In the past the main threat was from the Russia, now this danger is from other players with greater interest in the region. New threat is from China and the USA, with India also having keen interest in the region and ambition to revive the old Silk Route to boost economic and strategic goals. China was not, and is not, part of the Kashmir dispute, although it is in possession of the Kashmiri territory; and some quarters are advancing such theories that China should also be a party and a stakeholder in the Kashmir dispute. No doubt we need peace and stability in South Asia, but it cannot be achieved by adding more fuel to the fire or by cutting out some role for China in matters of Jammu and Kashmir. Chinese attitude over the past months and especially over the past 15 to 18 months has changed – it is more assertive and pro active. They are substantially increasing their influence and hold in areas of Gilgit Baltistan.
There are three different types of contracting: general contracting, design & build contracting and management contracting. The matters such as international financing of infrastructure projects, international procurement procedures and standard contract forms, international arbitration and alternative dispute settlement mechanisms, export credit insurance and the removal of barriers to entry into foreign construction markets stand out as priority issues which are affecting job opportunities of international contracting services sector abroad. Construction Industry needs alternative dispute settlement mechanisms which are able to solve rapidly the disputes relating to international construction projects especially, even in the construction site as far as they emerge. A modern tender system should begin with an efficient evaluation of the pre-qualification of applicants, and proceed with a tender procedure based on high quality tender documents, and carry on with the balanced conditions of contract which fairly distribute possible risks of future between the employer and the contractor.
Risks of nuclear terrorism and blackmailing have increased significantly in recent years mainly because of three factors: the growth and spread of nuclear weapons, the expansion of civilian nuclear programs and the increase in extremist religious and political groups waging campaigns of terror. The growing danger encompasses much of the world. Lax or inadequate security over nuclear materials and weapons in one country could be exploited to trigger atomic blackmail and terrorism elsewhere. Inadequate security at nuclear facilities also could provide extremists waging a campaign of terror within a nation, an opportunity to create a situation of national terror by seizing or sabotaging a civilian nuclear power plant or a research reactor or a laboratory. These threats are alarming and should be calculated as credible sources of emerging trends in terrorism. The general field of interest within which this study is located is nuclear terrorism with a particular focus on possible scenarios such as the theft of fissile material, dirty bombs etc. The main geographical area to be focused on is Pakistan although the study will also refer to terrorist organizations pursuing WMDs.
Terrorism, Freedom and Security – Winning Without War