An ecological study on species composition, relative abundance and habitat association of small mammals and the impact of human interference on their abundance and diversity was carried out in Nechisar National Park during August, 2008 to April, 2009. A total of 25 species of small mammals were recorded from the study area. Out of this, 20 species were rodents of three families and five species were insectivores of two families.Among the trapped small mammals, M. natalensis and A. dembeensis were the most widely distributed, whereas O. typus, C. olivera and E. rufescens were the least widespread in distribution. The population and density of small mammals were high during the dry season and less during the wet season. M. natalensis and A. niloticus were tapped from areas near human settlements as a commensal. The diversity and abundance of small mammals were correlated with different human disturbances in the area. Grazing, fire and deforestation were intensive, affecting the diversity, abundance and distribution of small mammals in the area.
Most of African mammals are small mammals although their ecology is least studied due to their small size, nocturnal in activity, shyness and secretive habit. From mammalian orders, rodents and shrews (excluding bat) have the largest number of species. For instance, rodents account for about 50% of mammalian species in the world; nearly 28% in East Africa; and 30% in Ethiopia and 50% of the Ethiopian endemic mammal fauna. Despite of high species diversity of rodents and shrews in Ethiopia, only few studies were carried out on their population, taxonomy and ecology. Moreover, today they are declining due to habitat loss and fragmentation resulted from anthropogenic activities. This is also true for small mammals of Mount Chilalo and Galama Mountains Range. In view of this, the book presents the ecological investigations of rodents and shrews of Mount Chilalo and Galalma Mountains Range in detail. Particularly issues on species composition, distribution, relative abundance, habitat association and seasonal population dynamics were covered in depth. The book is particularly helpful for who have interest on the ecology of small mammals of Afromontane and Afroalpine habitats.
Previous studies have shown that mammals excrete small amounts of morphine in their urine. While some researchers postulated an exogenous (possibly dietary) introduction of the alkaloid into animals, others focused on the hypothesis that the alkaloid is produced endogenously in the body. The author resolves this controversy by providing evidence that mammals naturally produce their own morphine. Her studies demonstrate that mouse urine contains specifically-labeled morphine and related compounds that have been produced post-injection with potential morphine precursors. Additionally, the study identifies several enzymes that could be involved in morphine biosynthesis in mammals. Finally, resemblance of the mammalian pathway to morphine biosynthesis in plants is discussed. This book addresses researchers interested in the role of morphine and similar compounds in the human body as well as bioanalysts involved with method development strategies for small molecules.
This book describes of signal processing for marine acoustic and dolphin. This book we will retain and provide understanding and implementation examples MATLAB application. This book describes of signal processing for marine acoustic and dolphin. This book we will retain and provide understanding and implementation examples MATLAB application. In this section we will discuss about PSD, Nyquist, Aliasing Effect, Wavelet Analysis 1D, Noisy Time Domain, FFT, and Percentage Click sound of Dolphin. Bioacoustic studied the frequency range of sound produced mammals, amplitude intensity of sound, voice fluctuation, and form sound patterns of mammals. Learn bioacoustic is inseparable from the science of underwater acoustics, biology of mammals in general, and the study of mammalian behavior. Generally bioacoustic include physiology of organs of mammals that produce sound, mechanism earnings voice, sound characteristics of mammals, mechanism sound approach by mammals, the hearing capacity of fish, and the evolution of the auditory system, and to obtain the frequency range of each sound produced by the dolphins (mammals).
The majorities of African mammals are small mammals although their ecology is least studied due to their small size, nocturnal in activity, shyness and secretive habit. From mammalian orders, rodents and shrews (excluding bat) have the largest number of species. For instance, rodents account for about 50% of mammalian species in the world; nearly 28% in East Africa; and 30% in Ethiopia and 50% of the Ethiopian endemic mammal fauna. Despite of high species diversity of rodents and shrews in Ethiopia, only few studies were carried out on their population, taxonomy and ecology. Moreover, today they are declining due to habitat loss and fragmentation resulted from anthropogenic activities. This is also true for small mammals of Mount Chilalo and Galama Mountains Range. In view of this, the book presents the ecological investigations of rodents and shrews of Mount Chilalo and Galalma Mountains Range in detail. Particularly issues on species composition, distribution, relative abundance, habitat association and seasonal population dynamics were covered in depth. The book is particularly helpful for who have interest on the ecology of small mammals of Afromontane and Afroalpine habitats.
Extinction and Radiation – How the Fall of Dinosaurs Led to the Rise of the Mammals
With extensive coverage of synthesis techniques and applications, this text describes chemical biology techniques which have gained significant impetus during the last five years. It focuses on the methods for obtaining modified and native nucleic acids, and their biological applications. Topics covered include: chemical synthesis of modified RNA expansion of the genetic alphabet in nucleic acids by creating new base pairs chemical biology of DNA replication: probing DNA polymerase selectivity mechanisms with modified nucleotides nucleic-acid-templated chemistry chemical biology of peptide nucleic acids (PNA) the interactions of small molecules with DNA and RNA the architectural modules of folded RNAs genesis and biological applications of locked nucleic acid (LNA) small non-coding RNA in bacteria microRNA-guided gene silencing nucleic acids based therapies innate immune recognition of nucleic acid light-responsive nucleic acids for the spatiotemporal control of biological processes DNA methylation frameworks for programming RNA devices RNA as a catalyst: The Diels-Alderase-Ribozyme evolving an understanding of RNA function by in vitro approaches the chemical biology of aptamers: synthesis and applications nucleic acids as detection tools bacterial riboswitch discovery and analysis The Chemical Biology of Nucleic Acids is an essential compendium of the synthesis of nucleic acids and their biological applications for bioorganic chemists, chemical biologists, medicinal chemists, cell biologists, and molecular biologists.
Habitat fragmentation is the most severe threat to biological diversity and is the primary cause of the present species extinction crisis. The study examines impact of habitat fragmentation with reference to occurrence and abundance, changes in feeding ecology and demographic parameters in five arboreal mammals such as Lion-tailed macaque, Niligiri langur, Malabar giant squirrel and two flying squirrels in the wet evergreen forest fragments in the Anamalai Hills, Western Ghats. Among the five arboreal mammals, the lion-tailed macaque was most affected. The major changes in feeding ecology were reduction in the number of food plant species used per day, quality of food and use of lianas in the small and degraded fragments. Effect on demographic changes, especially in lion-tailed macaque, include reduction in birth rate, population growth rate, and immatures survival, and increase in group size and a wide variation adult sex ratio in small fragments. Various management measures were recommended for the long-term conservation of forest fragments and arboreal mammals
Understanding, identifying and influencing the biological systems are the primary objectives of chemical biology. From this perspective, metal complexes have always been of great assistance to chemical biologists, for example, in structural identification and purification of essential biomolecules, for visualizing cellular organelles or to inhibit specific enzymes. This inorganic side of chemical biology, which continues to receive considerable attention, is referred to as inorganic chemical biology. Inorganic Chemical Biology: Principles, Techniques and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the current and emerging role of metal complexes in chemical biology. Throughout all of the chapters there is a strong emphasis on fundamental theoretical chemistry and experiments that have been carried out in living cells or organisms. Outlooks for the future applications of metal complexes in chemical biology are also discussed. Topics covered include: • Metal complexes as tools for structural biology • IMAC, AAS, XRF and MS as detection techniques for metals in chemical biology • Cell and organism imaging and probing DNA using metal and metal carbonyl complexes • Detection of metal ions, anions and small molecules using metal complexes • Photo-release of metal ions in living cells • Metal complexes as enzyme inhibitors and catalysts in living cells Written by a team of international experts, Inorganic Chemical Biology: Principles, Techniques and Applications is a must-have for bioinorganic, bioorganometallic and medicinal chemists as well as chemical biologists working in both academia and industry.
From genetics to ecology – the easy way to score higher in biology Are you a student baffled by biology? You're not alone. With the help of Biology Workbook For Dummies you'll quickly and painlessly get a grip on complex biology concepts and unlock the mysteries of this fascinating and ever-evolving field of study. Whether used as a complement to Biology For Dummies or on its own, Biology Workbook For Dummies aids you in grasping the fundamental aspects of Biology. In plain English, it helps you understand the concepts you'll come across in your biology class, such as physiology, ecology, evolution, genetics, cell biology, and more. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice exercises to reinforce learning and help you on your goal of scoring higher in biology. Grasp the fundamental concepts of biology Step-by-step answer sets clearly identify where you went wrong (or right) with a problem Hundreds of study questions and exercises give you the skills and confidence to ace your biology course If you're intimidated by biology, utilize the friendly, hands-on information and activities in Biology Workbook For Dummies to build your skills in and out of the science lab.
Barn owl is a basically predator bird/species and is a successful bio-control agent of rats/mice, a serious pests of our cash crops. Barn owl is abundant in agricultural fields of Sindh and Balochistan,Pakistan. It eats greater proportion of small mammals, among small mammals it prefers the rats/mice (agricultural pests). Using pelvic bones we can distinguish between sexes and thereby sex structure. Using the pattern of teeth we can determine the age and thereby age structure.It is suggested that to use this bio-control agent in agricultural fields to cut down the use of redenticieds which are costly and harmful to non-target species.
Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 14 It is difficult to over-state the importance of plant pigments in biology. Chlorophylls are arguably the most important organic compounds on earth, as they are required for photosynthesis. Carotenoids are also necessary for the survival of both plants and mammals, through their roles in photosynthesis and nutrition, respectively. The other plant pigment groups, such as flavonoids and betalains, have important roles in both the biology of plants and the organisms with which plants interact. This book provides an overview of pigment chemistry and biology, together with an up-to-date account of the biosynthesis of pigments and the modification of their production using biotechnology. The chapters cover a wide scope of pigmentation research – from the importance of structural diversity in generating the range of colours seen in plants, through to improving human health properties of crops by increasing pigment levels in transgenic plants. The volume is directed at researchers and professionals in plant biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics.