With extensive coverage of synthesis techniques and applications, this text describes chemical biology techniques which have gained significant impetus during the last five years. It focuses on the methods for obtaining modified and native nucleic acids, and their biological applications. Topics covered include: chemical synthesis of modified RNA expansion of the genetic alphabet in nucleic acids by creating new base pairs chemical biology of DNA replication: probing DNA polymerase selectivity mechanisms with modified nucleotides nucleic-acid-templated chemistry chemical biology of peptide nucleic acids (PNA) the interactions of small molecules with DNA and RNA the architectural modules of folded RNAs genesis and biological applications of locked nucleic acid (LNA) small non-coding RNA in bacteria microRNA-guided gene silencing nucleic acids based therapies innate immune recognition of nucleic acid light-responsive nucleic acids for the spatiotemporal control of biological processes DNA methylation frameworks for programming RNA devices RNA as a catalyst: The Diels-Alderase-Ribozyme evolving an understanding of RNA function by in vitro approaches the chemical biology of aptamers: synthesis and applications nucleic acids as detection tools bacterial riboswitch discovery and analysis The Chemical Biology of Nucleic Acids is an essential compendium of the synthesis of nucleic acids and their biological applications for bioorganic chemists, chemical biologists, medicinal chemists, cell biologists, and molecular biologists.
From genetics to ecology – the easy way to score higher in biology Are you a student baffled by biology? You're not alone. With the help of Biology Workbook For Dummies you'll quickly and painlessly get a grip on complex biology concepts and unlock the mysteries of this fascinating and ever-evolving field of study. Whether used as a complement to Biology For Dummies or on its own, Biology Workbook For Dummies aids you in grasping the fundamental aspects of Biology. In plain English, it helps you understand the concepts you'll come across in your biology class, such as physiology, ecology, evolution, genetics, cell biology, and more. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice exercises to reinforce learning and help you on your goal of scoring higher in biology. Grasp the fundamental concepts of biology Step-by-step answer sets clearly identify where you went wrong (or right) with a problem Hundreds of study questions and exercises give you the skills and confidence to ace your biology course If you're intimidated by biology, utilize the friendly, hands-on information and activities in Biology Workbook For Dummies to build your skills in and out of the science lab.
A comprehensive, authoritative look at an emergent area in post-genomic science, Evolutionary genomics is an up-and-coming, complex field that attempts to explain the biocomplexity of the living world. Evolutionary Genomics and Systems Biology is the first full-length book to blend established and emerging concepts in bioinformatics, evolution, genomics, and structural biology, with the integrative views of network and systems biology. Three key aspects of evolutionary genomics and systems biology are covered in clear detail: the study of genomic history, i.e., understanding organismal evolution at the genomic level; the study of macromolecular complements, which encompasses the evolution of the protein and RNA machinery that propels life; and the evolutionary and dynamic study of wiring diagrams—macromolecular components in interaction—in the context of genomic complements. The book also features: A solid, comprehensive treatment of phylogenomics, the evolution of genomes, and the evolution of biological networks, within the framework of systems biology A special section on RNA biology—translation, evolution of structure, and micro RNA and regulation of gene expression Chapters on the mapping of genotypes to phenotypes, the role of information in biology, protein architecture and biological function, chromosomal rearrangements, and biological networks and disease Contributions by leading authorities on each topic Evolutionary Genomics and Systems Biology is an ideal book for students and professionals in genomics, bioinformatics, evolution, structural biology, complexity, origins of life, systematic biology, and organismal diversity, as well as those individuals interested in aspects of biological sciences as they interface with chemistry, physics, and computer science and engineering.
Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 14 It is difficult to over-state the importance of plant pigments in biology. Chlorophylls are arguably the most important organic compounds on earth, as they are required for photosynthesis. Carotenoids are also necessary for the survival of both plants and mammals, through their roles in photosynthesis and nutrition, respectively. The other plant pigment groups, such as flavonoids and betalains, have important roles in both the biology of plants and the organisms with which plants interact. This book provides an overview of pigment chemistry and biology, together with an up-to-date account of the biosynthesis of pigments and the modification of their production using biotechnology. The chapters cover a wide scope of pigmentation research – from the importance of structural diversity in generating the range of colours seen in plants, through to improving human health properties of crops by increasing pigment levels in transgenic plants. The volume is directed at researchers and professionals in plant biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics.
Understanding, identifying and influencing the biological systems are the primary objectives of chemical biology. From this perspective, metal complexes have always been of great assistance to chemical biologists, for example, in structural identification and purification of essential biomolecules, for visualizing cellular organelles or to inhibit specific enzymes. This inorganic side of chemical biology, which continues to receive considerable attention, is referred to as inorganic chemical biology. Inorganic Chemical Biology: Principles, Techniques and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of the current and emerging role of metal complexes in chemical biology. Throughout all of the chapters there is a strong emphasis on fundamental theoretical chemistry and experiments that have been carried out in living cells or organisms. Outlooks for the future applications of metal complexes in chemical biology are also discussed. Topics covered include: • Metal complexes as tools for structural biology • IMAC, AAS, XRF and MS as detection techniques for metals in chemical biology • Cell and organism imaging and probing DNA using metal and metal carbonyl complexes • Detection of metal ions, anions and small molecules using metal complexes • Photo-release of metal ions in living cells • Metal complexes as enzyme inhibitors and catalysts in living cells Written by a team of international experts, Inorganic Chemical Biology: Principles, Techniques and Applications is a must-have for bioinorganic, bioorganometallic and medicinal chemists as well as chemical biologists working in both academia and industry.
Chemistry plays a very important role in the emerging field of synthetic biology. In particular, chemical synthetic biology is concerned with the synthesis of chemical structures, such as proteins, that do not exist in nature. With contributions from leading international experts, Chemical Synthetic Biology shows how chemistry underpins synthetic biology. The book is an essential guide to this fascinating new field, and will find a place on the bookshelves of researchers and students working in synthetic chemistry, synthetic and molecular biology, bioengineering, systems biology, computational genomics, and bioinformatics.
Based on the award winning Wiley Encyclopedia of Chemical Biology, this book provides a general overview of the unique features of the small molecules referred to as «natural products», explores how this traditionally organic chemistry-based field was transformed by insights from genetics and biochemistry, and highlights some promising future directions. The book begins by introducing natural products from different origins, moves on to presenting and discussing biosynthesis of various classes of natural products, and then looks at natural products as models and the possibilities of using them in medicine.
Developmental biology is at the core of biological science, integrating molecular biology, genetics and anatomy. The past 15 years has seen revolutionary advances not only in our understanding of the processes by which an egg develops into an adult, but also in the application of this knowledge to the areas of reproductive technology, drug development and organ replacement. Essential Developmental Biology is a concise and well-illustrated treatment of this subject for undergraduates. Assuming no prior knowledge of anatomy and only the basics of cell biology and genetics, the book starts off by introducing the principles and approaches of developmental biology. The second section covers the characteristic development of each of the principal model species used for research and the final chapters are devoted to organ development, predominantly in vertebrates. With an emphasis throughout on the evidence underpinning the main conclusions, this book is suitable as the key text for both introductory and more advanced courses in developmental biology. A new approach to a widely taught subject. Priced for student purchase at approximately half the price of the main competition. Over 200 illustrations, with artwork available free on the Web. Well-known author/media celebrity.
This collection of specially commissioned essays puts top scholars head to head to debate the central issues in the lively and fast growing field of philosophy of biology Brings together original essays on ten of the most hotly debated questions in philosophy of biology Lively head-to-head debate format sharply defines the issues and paves the way for further discussion Includes coverage of the new and vital area of evolutionary developmental biology, as well as the concept of a unified species, the role of genes in selection, the differences between micro- and macro-evolution, and much more Each section features an introduction to the topic as well as suggestions for further reading Offers an accessible overview of this fast-growing and dynamic field, whilst also capturing the imagination of professional philosophers and biologists
Coming to a conclusion, this wonderful, informative and very interesting book presents an excellent overview of small volatile organic compounds and their role in our life and environment. Really fascinating is the entirety of scientific disciplines which were addressed by this book. –Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 2011 «… this book deserves to be a well-used reference in the library of any laboratory specialising in VOC». –Chemistry World, 2011 Volatile compounds are molecules with a relatively low molecular weight allowing for an efficient evaporation into the air. They are found in many areas of our everyday-life: they are responsible for the communication between species such as plants, insects or mammals; they serve as flavours or fragrances in many food products or perfumed consumer articles; and they play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. This book takes an interdisciplinary approach to volatile molecules. Review-style introductions to the main topics in volatile chemistry and biology are provided by international experts, building into a broad overview of this fascinating field. Topics covered include: The structural variety of volatile compounds Biogeneration of volatiles Synthesis of natural and non-natural volatiles Analysis of volatiles Volatile compounds as semiochemicals in plant-plant or plant-insect interactions Volatiles in pest control Pheromones and the influence of volatiles on mammals Olfaction and human perception Volatiles as fragrances The generation of flavours and food aroma compounds Stabilisation and controlled release of volatiles The impact of volatiles on the environment and the atmosphere
This book represents the most comprehensive and up-to-date collection of information on the topic of computational molecular biology. Bringing the most recent research into the forefront of discussion, Algorithms in Computational Molecular Biology studies the most important and useful algorithms currently being used in the field, and provides related problems. It also succeeds where other titles have failed, in offering a wide range of information from the introductory fundamentals right up to the latest, most advanced levels of study.
Following the much acclaimed success of the first volume of Key Topics in Conservation Biology, this entirely new second volume addresses an innovative array of key topics in contemporary conservation biology. Written by an internationally renowned team of authors, Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2 adds to the still topical foundations laid in the first volume (published in 2007) by exploring a further 25 cutting-edge issues in modern biodiversity conservation, including controversial subjects such as setting conservation priorities, balancing the focus on species and ecosystems, and financial mechanisms to value biodiversity and pay for its conservation. Other chapters, setting the framework for conservation, address the sociology and philosophy of peoples’ relation with Nature and its impact on health, and such challenging practical issues as wildlife trade and conflict between people and carnivores. As a new development, this second volume of Key Topics includes chapters on major ecosystems, such as forests, islands and both fresh and marine waters, along with case studies of the conservation of major taxa: plants, butterflies, birds and mammals. A further selection of topics consider how to safeguard the future through monitoring, reserve planning, corridors and connectivity, together with approaches to reintroduction and re-wilding, along with managing wildlife disease. A final chapter, by the editors, synthesises thinking on the relationship between biodiversity conservation and human development. Each topic is explored by a team of top international experts, assembled to bring their own cross-cutting knowledge to a penetrating synthesis of the issues from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The interdisciplinary nature of biodiversity conservation is reflected throughout the book. Each essay examines the fundamental principles of the topic, the methodologies involved and, crucially, the human dimension. In this way, Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2, like its sister volume, Key Topics in Conservation Biology, embraces issues from cutting-edge ecological science to policy, environmental economics, governance, ethics, and the practical issues of implementation. Key Topics in Conservation Biology 2 will, like its sister volume, be a valuable resource in universities and colleges, government departments, and conservation agencies. It is aimed particularly at senior undergraduate and graduate students in conservation biology and wildlife management and wider ecological and environmental subjects, and those taking Masters degrees in any field relevant to conservation and the environment. Conservation practitioners, policy-makers, and the wider general public eager to understand more about important environmental issues will also find this book invaluable.
An integrative view of the evolution of genetics and the natural world Even in this advanced age of genomics, the evolutionary process of unicellular and multicellular organisms is continually in debate. Evolutionary Biology, Cell–Cell Communication, and Complex Disease challenges current wisdom by using physiology to present an integrative view of the nature, origins, and evolution of fundamental biological systems. Providing a deeper understanding of the way genes relate to the traits of living organisms, this book offers useful information applying evolutionary biology, functional genomics, and cell communication studies to complex disease. Examining the 4.5 billion-year evolution process from environment adaptations to cell-cell communication to communication of genetic information for reproduction, Evolutionary Biology hones in on the «why and how» of evolution by uniquely focusing on the cell as the smallest unit of biologic structure and function. Based on empirically derived data rather than association studies, Evolutionary Biology covers: A model for forming testable hypotheses in complex disease studies The integrating role played by the evolution of metabolism, especially lipid metabolism The evolutionary continuum from development to homeostasis Regeneration and aging mediated by signaling molecules Ambitious and game-changing Evolutionary Biology suggests that biology began as a mechanism for reducing energy within the cell, defying the Second Law of Thermodynamics. An ideal text for those interested in forward thinking scientific study, the insights presented in Evolutionary Biology help practitioners effectively comprehend the evolutionary process.
Just the core concepts you need to score high in your biology course Biology Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to succeed in an introductory biology course. From identifying the structures and functions of plants and animals to grasping the crucial discoveries in evolutionary, reproductive, and ecological biology, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. Get down to basics – master the fundamentals, from understanding what biologists study to how living things are classified The chemistry of life – find out what you need to know about atoms, elements, molecules, compounds, acids, bases, and more Conquer and divide – discover the ins and outs of asexual and sexual reproduction, including cell division and DNA replication Jump into the gene pool – grasp how proteins make traits happen, and easily understand DNA transcription, RNA processing, translation, and gene regulation Open the book and find: An overview of cells and their substructures Elementary chemistry The key facts about reproduction and DNA The 411 on energy and organisms What you need to know about evolution Coverage of ecosystems and populations Ten great biology discoveries Learn: Core concepts taught in an introductory biology course The structures and functions of plants and animals The key discoveries in evolutionary, reproductive, and ecological biology