Though the researchers of the theory of long and medium-term cycles are certainly worried about the economic situation, they understand that the cyclicity still remains an inevitable attribute of economic development. And Juglar's aphorism that crisis is a consequence of the preceded prosperity is still true. In this third issue of the Yearbook 'Kondratieff Waves' with the subtitle 'Cycles, Crises, and Forecasts', we present a number of insight contributions on nature, regularities, and interconnections among cycles of different duration. Some economic cycles may result in a severe economic crisis. The current one shows once again the importance of the study of cyclical dynamics and its peculiarities. Between the 1980s and 1990s the Keynesian receipts were replaced by neoliberal and monetarist ones which seemed to be miraculous as well. The depleted growth was marked with the largest global crisis of 2008 which also showed that within globalization when regulation in the international arena is impossible yet, there recur the signs of Juglar cycles of the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries with their uncontrollable upwards and sharp declines evolving into collapses and panic. This is supported by the fact that for eight years the world has been at the depressive phase. This edition will be useful for economists, social scientists, as well as for a wide range of those interested in the problems of the past, present, and future of global economy and globalization.
In this updated, second edition of the highly acclaimed international best seller, The Dollar Crisis: Causes, Consequences, Cures, Richard Duncan describes the flaws in the international monetary system that have destabilized the global economy and that may soon culminate in a deflation-induced worldwide economic slump. The Dollar Crisis is divided into five parts: Part One describes how the US trade deficits, which now exceed US$1 million a minute, have destabilized the global economy by creating a worldwide credit bubble. Part Two explains why these giant deficits cannot persist and why a US recession and a collapse in the value of the Dollar are unavoidable. Part Three analyzes the extraordinarily harmful impact that the US recession and the collapse of the Dollar will have on the rest of the world. Part Four offers original recommendations that, if implemented, would help mitigate the damage of the coming worldwide downturn and put in place the foundations for balanced and sustainable economic growth in the decades ahead. Part Five, which has been newly added to the second edition, describes the extraordinary evolution of this crisis since the first edition was completed in September 2002. It also considers how the Dollar Crisis is likely to unfold over the years immediately ahead, the likely policy response to the crisis, and why that response cannot succeed. The Dollar Standard is inherently flawed and increasingly unstable. Its collapse will be the most important economic event of the 21st Century.
As part of the dynamics of international economic cooperation by the need for mutual settlement operations, so the problem of organization of settlements is an important place for the economically active subjects, especially in a globalized economic space in the functioning of transnational structures and scale of the export, import and international financial transactions. In agreeing on the order of calculations, the participants determined the form of payment in order to fulfill the financial obligations of the agreement – regulated by means of voluntary compliance through a credit institution liabilities, characterized by specific features on the order of transfer of funds to the account, a certain kind of settlement document, as well as office procedures. The source of payment relations is the need to have one contractor expressed in the appropriate disposition, the other in shortage. This relationship gives rise as a consequence of the relationship with the lending institution. Need to accession will intensify in the subjects of international payment relationship.
In this paper, we examine nonlinear interrelationship between energy consumption and output level for a panel of G7 countries. For this purpose, we propose a nonlinear cointegration test in heterogeneous panels for testing the presence of a cointegrating relationship that follows a globally stationary exponential smooth transition (ESTR) process, and apply our test for investigating long-run relationship between energy use and economic growth in the case of the G7 countries. Our results suggest the presence of a long-run relationship between these two variables whereas adjustment to the equilibrium is inherently nonlinear. After establishing long-run relationship between energy consumption and output, we estimate a Panel Smooth Transition Vector Error Correction Model and apply nonlinear Granger causality tests in order to analyze the direction of the causality between these variables. We find that the causality between energy consumption and output level is dependent on the phases of business cycle. Our results highlight importance of taking account of possible nonlinearities in analysing output-energy causality nexus and designing energy policies.
Дебютная студийная работа американского метал проекта Karyn Crisis Gospel Of The Witches выпущен 17 марта 2015 года на лэйбле Century Media Records. Запись проходила в студии The Basement Recordings вместе с продюсером Jamie Kingом (Between The Buried And Me, The Contortionist).
A startlingly timely and graphic look at resistance around the globe. In recent years the world has borne witness to various confrontations, many of them violent, between pivotal gatherings of the world's political and economic leaders and anarchist protest groups. This politically astute and up-to-the-minute graphic novel paints a new picture of global protest, documenting the history of movements around the world, from historic protests to the current Occupy movement. The dramatic accounts are informative, vivid and do much to address the current myths about protests.
Multilingualism and cultural diversity is anchored in Europe?s history. Knowledge of foreign languages is a key competence tackling the challenges of the European Union towards enlargement, civic changes and globalisation. Present analysis describes the set-up of a framework in Education and Training on an EU level and the development of a Language Policy shifting from an initially economic frame to a more cultural and civic approach back to a labour market oriented objective. The conceptualization of the action fields of the EU Language Policy is defined in the correspondence to social, civic and economic needs despite of varying understanding, tradition and visions of multi-lingualism in the Member States. The European Union promotes multilingualism through various funding programmes demonstrated in the second part of this study. Burgenland in Austria is a multilingual region at the cross-point between German, Hungarian, Romani and Slav languages. Using the example of this region, discrepancies have been revealed between the multilingual concept of the European Union and its implementation on a national and regional level due to the socio-economic realities of the Member States.
Infinite Crisis has changed the DCU, and Checkmate has shaped its hard-learned lessons into a new game plan to balance power between Black and White, between human and metahuman, and between the familiar faces who have become its new Kings and Queens. Along the way, the agency must also navigate the propaganda wars, black ops combat, and political manuevering that fuel Checkmate's critical missions--missions that take a grueling toll on the agents' day-to-day lives.
The three-electron theory of communication accepted for granted the existence of threeelectron bonds (one axiom), everything else is derived logically. And if think… reflect the existence of three-electron bond directly from the theory of resonance (resonance structures do not exist, in reality there is something average between them – and now think that should really be the basis of this, some real structure?.. of course the three-electron bond!!!).
The book extends the concept of language in Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory to the cognitive differences between second language acquisiton(SLA) and foreign language learning(FLL), and succeeds in filling the gap between FLL and SLA in constructing instructional interaction for FLL by the adoption of the Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding. It is not just intended to promote a particular approach to instructional interaction development in online FLL, but is an attempt to highlight the existence of the differences between FLL and SLA, and to underline the necessity to attend to them on a more than SLA theoretical basis.
This yearbook is the fourth in the series with the title Globalistics and Globalization Studies. The subtitle of the present volume is Global History & Big History. The point is that today our global world really demands global knowledge. Thus, there are a few actively developing multidisciplinary approaches and integral disciplines among which one can name Global Studies, Global History and Big History. They all provide a connection between the past, present, and future. Big History with its vast and extremely heterogeneous field of research encompasses all the forms of existence and all timescales and brings together constantly updated information from the scientific disciplines and the humanities. Global History is transnational or world history which examines history from a global perspective, making a wide use of comparative history and of the history of multiple cultures and nations. Global Studies express the view of systemic and epistemological unity of global processes. Thus, one may argue that Global Studies and Globalistics can well be combined with Global History and Big History and such a multi-disciplinary approach can open wide horizons for the modern university education as it helps to form a global view of various processes.