The rice-wheat production system has major role in food security in the region and provides livelihood and income to millions of farmers in IGP. The lack of suitable mechanization and modernization with proper soil-crop management strategies is probably the cause of higher cost requirement and low return in the system. Current crop cultivation practices in rice-wheat systems degrade the soil and water resources thereby threaten the sustainability. The concept of alternative agricultural system is put forward to improve in net return with minimum resource use from crop cultivation is conservation agriculture (CA) the best alternative to protect soil, water, environment, time and cost. CA practices in Nepalese context have drastically reduced tillage intensity, reducing the cost of cultivation and allowing timely sowing with comparable yield.
Rice is cultivated in all physiographic regions in Nepal. The practice of rice cultivation differs with landscape and season. Early season (spring) and Normal season (summer) are two seasons in which rice is cultivated in Nepal. Early season rice (Chaite rice) sowings are practiced in February-march and Normal season rice sowings are practiced usually in June-July. Both the early rice and normal rice are cultivated in the lowlands while only normal season rice is cultivated in upland regions. There are some households where farmers know only rice cultivation for their survival. There are considerable differences in practices of production, storage and marketing between early season rice and normal season rice in Nepal. This study addresses that the early season rice cultivation practice has significant opportunities. In contrast, there are some potenpotential difficulties involved in early season rice cultivation. Early rice cultivation practice needs an appropriate technology transfer system which was lagged behind to improve the livelihood of the small scale rice farmers in the study area.
The main object of this book is to provide the knowledge to the poor marginal Rice growing farmers of West Bengal as Rice is the most important cereal crop in this state. But increasing in cost of cultivation in terms of fertilizer, pesticide as well as agriculture-labour the net profit gain of the poor rice growers are gradually decreasing. This book is providing the information regarding System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as an new alternative source of rice cultivation with increasing productivity and profit and minimizing the environmental hazard.
Asian subtropics occupies 21 million hectares of rice-wheat cropping system on their fertile soils. This system carried out on 15 million hectares with highly significant impact for food safety in the area, providing staple food for more than 415 million people.Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has the highest position in food grains in Pakistan: 66% of the total area under food grains is wheat and it contributes 74% of the total food grain production.Tillage is done according to the soil types. Delay in wheat sowing is the result of 6-8 ploughing with planking and loss of high energy.Timely wheat planting after rice ensured in 10 percent higher wheat grain yield in a rice-wheat cropping system.Drilling of wheat in to rice residue using zero tillage has eliminated the time for land preparation and improved crop stand establishment.So,this study has, therefore, been planned to achieve the most economical method for sowing wheat in a rice-wheat cropping system and Quantify the nutrient losses to soil fertility of burning rice straw. Mushtaq Ahmad Gill is the founder of zero tillage and laser land leveling technology in Pakistan and contributed a lot for this research and book.
A study was conducted in wheat during rabi season 2012-13 on sandy loam soil at Crop Research Centre, Chirodi of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut (U.P.) Find out the suitable cultivars and different method of planting. To study the effect of different planting methods on growth and yield attributes of rice cultivars. To study the economics of different planting methods.
This book describes an innovation of saving fresh water from rice cultivation. Author describes phytoavailability of nutrients in soil extracts and yield parameters of rice plants under different irrigation practices. Innovative water use in rice cultivation did not affect rice yield and soil chemical properties but saved larger amount of fresh water to be diverted to the municipal and other purposes. Global changes force scientists to sustain rice production under low input water irrigation. Knowledge is necessary for the farmers to reduce water input for rice cultivation without affecting soil chemical properties. This book will help farmers, researchers and other rice related agencies for less water rice production.
Rice is a major crop that is grown in more than 110 countries. The total area planted under rice in India is 44.0 million hectares which is largest in the world against a total area of 156.6 million hectares. The average yield of rice in India is 3.2 tonnes/hectare alone. The reasons for low yield are limited area under irrigation, seasonal shortage of resources and delay in land preparation and transplanting. A study on economics and major constraints in rice cultivation in Kaithal district of Haryana was conducted during 2009-10.Total costs in rice production amounted to be Rs. 33778.68/ha. Average yield was 4.99 t/ha. Benefit-cost ratio worked out to be 1.27. Pests and disease incidence, lack of remunerative price and labour shortage were the major constraints in rice production.
The impact of continuous rice cultivation on pedogenic changes and environmental consequence of Nile Delta Soils was studied. Eight soil profiles, which were chosen to represent the most popular produces of soils in Nile Delta. Also ground water samples were collected through some water pumps scattered in the rice fields and carried to the laboratory to measure the concentration of nitrate. Setting the soils under paddy rice soils generally deterioration most of soil physical properties. Generally, migration of fine clay in soils under continuous paddy rice soil conditions may result in close the fine pores, causing gleying conditions. The pH values of the investigated soil profiles under paddy rice soils were typically around 8.36. Distribution of exchangeable and soluble cations in the soils of continuous rice cultivation to a large extent is in great agreement with the rule of dilution effect of the flooding conditions of continuous rice cultivation.
This book “Crop Residue Management in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” has written for plant nutrient management in rice - wheat cropping system with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The rice-wheat cropping system is one of most widely practiced cropping system in India as well as across the world. The nutrient management in this system is a big task; both crops are heavy nutrient feeder. It requires nutrient cycling from organic residues to maintain nutrient balance in soil. Addition of organic matter to the soil through the return of crop residues also improves soil structure, influences soil water, air and temperature relation, helps to control runoff and erosion and makes tillage easier. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources would be essential for sustainability of the rice-wheat system. This book provides the information about NPK nutrient balance and crop performance under crop residue management practices.
The book entitled ‘Probe into ‘Pro’ and ‘B’ factors in Rice Cultivation’ is an illustrated version of an account of environmental stresses acting on a Rice Plants across India. Efforts have been made by authors for the readers to understand the impact of Micro nutrient - Boron on the growth and development of the Salt Tolerant Rice Plant('Pokkali'). The Boron, commonly known as Factor-B, has been an unknown identity among rice farmers. The book also depicts the way how environmental stresses make impacts on Proline (Pro) metabolism in salt tolerant rice plants. Economic estimates regarding the rice cultivation across the nation has also been accounted. The authors have made suggestions in developing and restructuring the arousing problem in the field of paddy cultivation especially ‘Pokkali’ variety. The book contains introductory explanations of several environmental abuses on Rice Plants across the nation. The presentations are uniformly attractive and cogent. Illustrations given are meaningful and relevant. The book can be taken as a well-organized guide for researchers working on Paddy related topics. It will serve all practitioners doing research in the related field.
The main objective of the study was to determine farmers’ adoption behavior on hybrid rice cultivation. The study also explored the relationship between farmers’ extent of adoption of hybrid rice cultivation and their selected characteristics. Besides these, attempts were also made to understand farmers’ assessment of hybrid rice as an innovation, their perceived benefits of hybrid rice cultivation, and problems faced by farmers in hybrid rice cultivation. A computed adoption quotient was used to measure farmers’ extent of adoption of hybrid rice cultivation, while Pearson’s co-efficient of correlation (r) was used to explore the relationships between the concerned variable. Nine characteristics of the farmers, namely age, education, family size, farm size, annual income, extension media contact, innovativeness, cosmopoliteness, farmers’ knowledge were considered for the study. Bagunda and Panihori villages of Phulpur upazila under Mymensingh district were the local of the study. A total number of 200 farmers, who adopted hybrid rice in the boro season of 2008-09, were the population and randomly selected 100 farmers were constituted the sample of the study.
Rice-Wheat cropping system covers about 11 m ha in India, is the backbone of India's food security. This cropping system produces as high as 12.8 to 17.0 t/ha/annum at different levels of cultivation and is highly nutrient depleting but the factors responsible for success of this system are good economic return, market infrastructural support and very little risk making increasingly popular with the farmers over the years. The introduction of the non-sensitive, input responsive, relatively early maturing varieties of rice and wheat in the mid 60's enabled farmers to intensify land use and increased the acreage under this important cropping system. In recent years, there is a problem to sustain the high yield levels of rice-wheat in India. Several factors including attack of insect pests and diseases are considered responsible for stagnation in productivity of this cropping system. The present investigations were, therefore, carried out with a view to monitor insect pests, diseases and natural enemies operating in rice and wheat ecosystems and to develop an effective bio intensive management strategy to contain population buildup of major insect pests and diseases of rice and wheat.
Advanced resource management and conservation technologies in wetland rice are system of rice intensification (SRI), integrated crop management (ICM), aerobic rice culture etc in the context of farmer’s realities in lowland rice ecosystem in North - Eastern Region of India. The management of these technologies in wetland rice cultivation could conserve resources like seeds, water, nutrients, reduce cost, soil health and environment which leads to higher yield compared to conventional rice culture (CRC). The main reason for none or less-adoption of SRI and ICM technologies in rice cultivation in North-Eastern Region of India might be related to more efforts, faith towards traditional weed control methods, lack of knowledge and water management. It is important to understand the performance of any new technology in the context of farmer’s realities, which are always more complicated and more diversified than on any research station. This book might definitely help for the researchers, academicians and students in their future career.
Rice is one of the most important food grains produced and consumed all over the world. It is the major staple food for more than two billion people in Asia and one third of the calorific intake of nearly one billion people of Africa and Latin America. Hence, rice can be rightly called as ‘The stuff of life’. Worldwide, rice is cultivated in an area of 153.8 m ha, which is more than 10 per cent of the arable land.Rice is adapted to various edaphic and climatic conditions. Rice is being cultivated from below sea level in Kuttanad of Kerala to higher altitudes as in Jammu and Kashmir revealing the heterogeneity of its environment and its different modes of cultivation. The semidry rice cultivation is prevalent in twenty per cent of rice area of our country with low productivity of one t ha-1, when compared with the normal productivity of transplanted rice, of about 5 t ha-1 (TNAU Annual report, 2000). In Tamil Nadu, semidry rice system is practiced in about one lakh hectares with a mean productivity of one t ha-1. Thus there is an imminent need to raise the level of productivity to narrow down the wide disparity.
System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is under evaluation in 29 countries at present, where it has been shown that yields can be enhanced by suitably modifying certain management practices such as controlled supply of water, planting of younger seedlings and providing wider spacing. This method of cultivation is said to promote greater root growth and higher soil biological activity in the rhizosphere. The benefits of SRI include increased yield (20-25%), a reduction in seed requirement (75%), water saving (45-50%), strong and profuse root system and tillering resulting in lodging resistance, improving soil health, reduction in pests, diseases, grain shattering and unfilled grains. The System of Rice Intensification improves yields with less water, less seed, and less chemical inputs than most conventional methods of rice cultivation. This means that the returns on inputs are higher, making the method potentially more profitable than most of the traditional methods.