A study was conducted in wheat during rabi season 2012-13 on sandy loam soil at Crop Research Centre, Chirodi of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut (U.P.) Find out the suitable cultivars and different method of planting. To study the effect of different planting methods on growth and yield attributes of rice cultivars. To study the economics of different planting methods.
Asian subtropics occupies 21 million hectares of rice-wheat cropping system on their fertile soils. This system carried out on 15 million hectares with highly significant impact for food safety in the area, providing staple food for more than 415 million people.Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has the highest position in food grains in Pakistan: 66% of the total area under food grains is wheat and it contributes 74% of the total food grain production.Tillage is done according to the soil types. Delay in wheat sowing is the result of 6-8 ploughing with planking and loss of high energy.Timely wheat planting after rice ensured in 10 percent higher wheat grain yield in a rice-wheat cropping system.Drilling of wheat in to rice residue using zero tillage has eliminated the time for land preparation and improved crop stand establishment.So,this study has, therefore, been planned to achieve the most economical method for sowing wheat in a rice-wheat cropping system and Quantify the nutrient losses to soil fertility of burning rice straw. Mushtaq Ahmad Gill is the founder of zero tillage and laser land leveling technology in Pakistan and contributed a lot for this research and book.
The rice-wheat production system has major role in food security in the region and provides livelihood and income to millions of farmers in IGP. The lack of suitable mechanization and modernization with proper soil-crop management strategies is probably the cause of higher cost requirement and low return in the system. Current crop cultivation practices in rice-wheat systems degrade the soil and water resources thereby threaten the sustainability. The concept of alternative agricultural system is put forward to improve in net return with minimum resource use from crop cultivation is conservation agriculture (CA) the best alternative to protect soil, water, environment, time and cost. CA practices in Nepalese context have drastically reduced tillage intensity, reducing the cost of cultivation and allowing timely sowing with comparable yield.
Rice is cultivated in all physiographic regions in Nepal. The practice of rice cultivation differs with landscape and season. Early season (spring) and Normal season (summer) are two seasons in which rice is cultivated in Nepal. Early season rice (Chaite rice) sowings are practiced in February-march and Normal season rice sowings are practiced usually in June-July. Both the early rice and normal rice are cultivated in the lowlands while only normal season rice is cultivated in upland regions. There are some households where farmers know only rice cultivation for their survival. There are considerable differences in practices of production, storage and marketing between early season rice and normal season rice in Nepal. This study addresses that the early season rice cultivation practice has significant opportunities. In contrast, there are some potenpotential difficulties involved in early season rice cultivation. Early rice cultivation practice needs an appropriate technology transfer system which was lagged behind to improve the livelihood of the small scale rice farmers in the study area.
The main object of this book is to provide the knowledge to the poor marginal Rice growing farmers of West Bengal as Rice is the most important cereal crop in this state. But increasing in cost of cultivation in terms of fertilizer, pesticide as well as agriculture-labour the net profit gain of the poor rice growers are gradually decreasing. This book is providing the information regarding System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as an new alternative source of rice cultivation with increasing productivity and profit and minimizing the environmental hazard.
Black Rice – The African Origins of Rice Cultivation in the Americas
The impact of continuous rice cultivation on pedogenic changes and environmental consequence of Nile Delta Soils was studied. Eight soil profiles, which were chosen to represent the most popular produces of soils in Nile Delta. Also ground water samples were collected through some water pumps scattered in the rice fields and carried to the laboratory to measure the concentration of nitrate. Setting the soils under paddy rice soils generally deterioration most of soil physical properties. Generally, migration of fine clay in soils under continuous paddy rice soil conditions may result in close the fine pores, causing gleying conditions. The pH values of the investigated soil profiles under paddy rice soils were typically around 8.36. Distribution of exchangeable and soluble cations in the soils of continuous rice cultivation to a large extent is in great agreement with the rule of dilution effect of the flooding conditions of continuous rice cultivation.
An agro-climatic study was conducted to assess the vulnerability of winter rice (boro) production in Bangladesh to potential climate change. Effect of climate change on yield of two varieties of boro rice has been assessed using the DSSAT (v4) modeling system. The yield of BR3 and BR14 boro varieties for the years 2008, 2030, 2050 and 2070 have been simulated for 12 locations of Bangladesh, which were selected from among the major rice growing areas in different regions of Bangladesh. Available data on soil and hydrologic characteristics of these locations, and typical crop management practice for boro rice were used in the simulations. The weather data required for the model (daily maximum and minimum temperatures, daily solar radiation and daily precipitation) were generated for the selected years and for the selected locations using the regional climate model PRECIS. The model predicted significant reduction in yield of both varieties of boro rice due to climate change; yield reductions of over 20% and 50% have been predicted for both rice varieties for the years 2050 and 2070, respectively.
Rice is a major crop that is grown in more than 110 countries. The total area planted under rice in India is 44.0 million hectares which is largest in the world against a total area of 156.6 million hectares. The average yield of rice in India is 3.2 tonnes/hectare alone. The reasons for low yield are limited area under irrigation, seasonal shortage of resources and delay in land preparation and transplanting. A study on economics and major constraints in rice cultivation in Kaithal district of Haryana was conducted during 2009-10.Total costs in rice production amounted to be Rs. 33778.68/ha. Average yield was 4.99 t/ha. Benefit-cost ratio worked out to be 1.27. Pests and disease incidence, lack of remunerative price and labour shortage were the major constraints in rice production.
Reportedly hundred years have passed since cultivation of the glutinous rice began in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Global as well as Bangladesh perspective research efforts and the achievements accumulated on glutinous rice cultivation in coastal areas during the last few decades have been reviewed in the present volume so far. I, as the chief author of Glutinous Rice Cultivation in Coastal Soils of Bangladesh earnestly hope that research information compiled in this volume will contribute to the further development of glutinous rice with emphasis on its origin, types, grain quality, socio-economic importance highlighting traditional use, food value, biochemical composition, genetic basis for salt tolerance, management strategies etc. Last but not least, I have to thank my wife Shanjida Shafique Yunus and sons- Zerak Yunus and Shaykh Yunus for encouraging me to write this book and for their co-operations conferred on and patience kept during this time consuming process.
Technological and economic prospects of rice cultivation in Bageshwar district of Uttarakhand (India) has been studied using standard concepts and methodologies to provide a feedback to the researcher, academicians and policy makers for improving food security in the hilly terrain of India. The study provides a comparative evaluation of the technology adoption, profitability and yield gap in rice cultivation at different altitudes using the field level data.Farmers in different altitudes exhibited varying level of technology adoption leading to differential economic returns. The gap between actual and potential yield can be filled by adoption of location specific technologies, efficient extension and input delivery services and better infrastructure facilities.
The Achievement of food security is one of the main challenges of many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. A steadfast increase in rice production can substantially contribute in ameliorating food security. Actually, rice is a staple food for more than half of the world’s population and its consumption is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, per capita consumption of rice has increased from 2.3 kg in 1961 to 22.4 kg in 2005. About 87 % of the rice consumed in Cameroon is imported, mean while the natural conditions in the country are favourable for the production of rice to satisfy local demand and for export. The dominant rice cropping systems in Cameroon are irrigated and lowland rainfed agriculture. The main question addressed in this book is “What are the potentialities of Southern Cameroon for upland rice production?” In this study, land evaluation was used to assess the suitability of Southern Cameroon for rice cultivation.
Rice cultivation faces challenges across the world and India is no exception. With the increasing cost of cultivation of paddy coupled with labour scarcity, sustaining the interest of farmers in rice cultivation has become a challenge. Thus, there is an urgent need to produce more output with a drop of water owing to water scarcity. This study has envisaged to examine the issues in adoption and dis-adoption and its impact on resource use, yield and efficiency of SRI farmers in Palakkad district of Kerala, India. The present study revealed that SRI can be further adopted and practiced by farmers if there is an improvement in SRI extension service delivery. The main problem associated with discontinuance behaviour of farmers was shortage of skilled labour. Training and education to farmers on SRI techniques should be enhanced so that skilled labour is available for various operations and farmers can adopt SRI technologies to their own resource endowments and constraints to improve their rice production. The farmers should also be provided with essential institutional support through technology and capacity building.
This book “Crop Residue Management in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” has written for plant nutrient management in rice - wheat cropping system with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The rice-wheat cropping system is one of most widely practiced cropping system in India as well as across the world. The nutrient management in this system is a big task; both crops are heavy nutrient feeder. It requires nutrient cycling from organic residues to maintain nutrient balance in soil. Addition of organic matter to the soil through the return of crop residues also improves soil structure, influences soil water, air and temperature relation, helps to control runoff and erosion and makes tillage easier. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources would be essential for sustainability of the rice-wheat system. This book provides the information about NPK nutrient balance and crop performance under crop residue management practices.
In this book the CAD/CAM/CAE-Technology is judiciously used for the contribution to design optimization of tillage tool system by conducting a simulation experiments using FEM method on geometric solid model. The concept of reverse engineering as well as an innovative approach can be used for geometry creation. The software environment with influencing parameters are set with standards by loading and boundary conditions for developing a computer aided engineering analysis cycle. The software generated simulation reports with a stress distribution&deformations patterns in individual component as well as whole assembly are useful to confirm a design specification. The structural analysis by identifying the scope in design modification is practiced for optimum energy utilization with an economic and efficient use of tillage tool. The application of such methods are introduced for precision manufacturing of agricultural tools & implements. In this issue only sweep & rotary tillage tools are discussed for primary and secondary tillage tool process optimization to confirm a manufacturing process. The present research study is beneficial to an agricultural industry, researcher & farmer.