Transdermal drug delivery systems are adhesive, dug containing devices of defined surface area that deliver a pre-determined amount of drug to the surface of intact skin at a pre-programmed rate. These systems provide drug systemically at a predictable rate and maintain the rate for extended periods of time. In this work an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate TDDS for sustained release Atorvastatin calcium by solvent casting method. Low molecular weight, good permeability of Atorvastatin calcium made it a suitable drug candidate for the development of transdermal patches. The main objective of formulating the transdermal system was to prolong the drug release time, reduce the frequency of administration and to improve patient compliance. We sincerely hope that this book will helpful to student as well as industry and academic professionals involved in pharmaceutical and other related science.
Miconazole nitrate were used as antifungal agent, The main aim of this research study was to formulate transdermal patch of miconazole nitrate and it is evaluted for its surface endurance, thickness, moisture content, surface pH and in vitro release and its comparative study with marketed formulation. We finds better results in all respects of pH, surface endurance, moisture content, in vitro release pattern of drug from the transdermal patch and also compared to marketed preparation of miconazole nitrate. finally concluded that the prepared transdermal patch should be beneficial in all respects.
The purpose of this research was to develop a matrix-type transdermal therapeutic system containing Diclofenac acid (DA), Pressure Sensitive Adhesive (PSA) by the solvent evaporation technique. Different concentrations of Labrasol, oleic acid and triacetin were used to enhance the transdermal permeation of DA. Polyethylene monolayer film as a backing membrane and Silicone coated polyester film as a release liner preferred in preparation of transdermal patches. Formulated transdermal patches were physically evaluated with regard to percentage moisture absorption, thickness, weight variation, drug content, tensile strength, % elongation, folding endurance. In vitro skin permeation studies of formulations were performed by using Franz diffusion cells. Formulation containing 5% drug, 85% adhesive and 10% triacetin as permeation enhancer showed best in vitro skin permeation through human cadaver skin as compared to all other formulations. The results were found to follow zero order kinetics. These results indicate that optimized formulation has shown optimum release in concentration independent manner.
Biodegradable nanoparticles of insulin and Repaglinide were prepared by using biodegradable polymers and lipids. The prepared nanoparticles were evaluated by physicochemical parameters and in-vitro drug release. The optimized nanoparticle formulation of insulin and Repaglinide were loaded into Transdermal patch. These patches were subjected to release studies and preclinical evaluation parameters like bioavailability studies. Based on above studies, it was concluded that a single patch is suitable to control diabetes for more than 7 days
The objectives of this compilation is to provide an overview of Transdermal drug delivery system. Here matrix patches of Glipizide by using different ratio of ethyl cellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 preapared and characterized. The influence of oleic acid (OA) and its combined effect with propylene glycol (PG) on the percutaneous permeation of drug was also studied. All the in- vitro studies were conducted by using cellophane membrane and human cadaver skin. Data recorded over 24 hr was compared with that for control formulation (containing no enhancers) using Franz diffusion cells. Stability study and statistical analysis of data was also done. This book would be effective for those persons working at initial stage of Transdermal drug delivry.
Conventional dosage forms often lead to wide swings in serum drug concentrations. Most of the drug content is released soon after administration, causing drug level in the body to rise rapidly, attain maximum concentration and then decline sharply. This sharp fluctuations often cause unacceptable side effects at the peaks, followed by inadequate therapy at the troughs. In the transdermal drug delivery system, drug is released at a constant rate and provides plasma concentration that remains constant over an extended period of time. In the present work, chitosan film has been used as rate controlling membrane for the transdermal drug delivery of an antiemetic drug, Ondansetron HCl. This book throws light on the preparation and evaluation of chitosan membrane as well as provides a new method for the preparation of chitosan gel.This book also, provides the way of fabrication and evaluation of transdermal patches utilising chitosan films which shows promising potential for use in the transdermal delivery of Ondansetron HCl.
In the recent years, controlled release of drug from the suitable delivery system has attracted academic and industrial researchers and has been coveted approach to improve therapeutic efficacy. Hence, formulation and in vitro evaluation of losartan potassium (LP) loaded transdermal delivery system (TDS) was investigated for controlled release and improved therapeutic efficacy. TDS in the form of patches were prepared by varying the composition of Eudragit RL 100 and Eudragit RS 100. Patches were evaluated for thickness, content uniformity, mechanical properties, moisture uptake and in vitro drug release. Technological parameters for all the formulations were found to be within the limit. In-vitro studies showed relatively low permeation of LP. Inclusion of penetration enhancers (capsaicin & pluronic F-68) resulted increased permeation of LP across human skin. Additionally, study also describes an appropriate animal model for the prediction of human skin permeability. This book provides comprehensive research methodology of TDS & various quality control parameters for the beginners to understand & develop interest in transdermal drug delivery research.
The main focus of this research work was to develop a matrix type transdermal patch containing Propranolol hydrochloride and combination of two hydrophobic Polymers Eudragit L-100 and Eudragit S-100 by Solvent Evaporation technique.Combination of two Plasticizers Glycerine and Dibutyl phthalate were used and their effect on drug release was studied by changing their concentration in each batch.Methanol and Dichloromethane solvent system was used in which methanol acts as a penetration enhancer.Since oral bioavaibility of Propranolol Hydrochloride is poor due to high first pass metabolism transdermal patch is formed with the objective to get sustained release drug action with good bioavaibility. It can be concluded that the attempt of formulation and evaluation of the propranolol hydrochloride patches was found to be successful in the release of drug for an extended period of time. Further detailed investigations and elaborate in-vivo studies need to be carried out and an in-vitro in-vivo correlation need to established to guarantee the efficiency and bioavaibility of the formulation.
Ondansetron hydrochloride has been used orally or intravenously to prevent and control nausea and vomiting after cancer chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Transdermal route for delivery of antiemetic agents would be an ideal alternative. Transdermal delivery is influenced by various design factors such as polymer species, internal structure of the polymer matrix, permeation enhancement strategies and drug loading dose apart from other physicochemical properties of the drug. In this book attempts has been made to elucidate the development of ondansetron transdermal films.Application of design of experiment (DOE) to study the influence of formulation variables and optimization of formulations has been explained in detail. Physicochemical characterization and evaluation of transdermal systems has been discussed. This book would be of immense use to undergraduate/graduate students, teachers, all those researchers pursuing transdermal research, chemists and professionals.
Successful development of transdermal drug delivery involves a series of steps like drug candidate potential to be delivered across skin, selection of suitable polymers, development and in-vitro in-vivo performance. These issues become more critical while developing a transdermal drug delivery of combination of drugs. This book Transdermal Drug Delivery of Candesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide,Preformulation, Formulation considerations and Development explains these developmental aspects of transdermal drug delivery with thorough discussion and methodology involved in selection of potential drug candidates, selection of polymers, preformulation parameters, formulation considerations, skillfull development and in-vitro in-vivo performace evaluation of developed system. The book is thus a suitable guideline for graduate and postgraduate students and researchers in the field of transdermal drug delivery.
The authors have presented all the included contents in a detailed manner in a simple and easy to understand language. This book is written with an intention to benefit students, industry professionals and research personnels involved in studying, manufacturing and developing transdermal drug delivery systems. The authors have also included the data of their research work "Formulation and Evaluation of matrix diffusion controlled transdermal patch of glipizide" to provide an illustration. A sincere effort is made to cover all the topics in a detailed yet simple manner. Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery systems have also been included. The authors feel that this book should overcome the need of referring other books for transdermal drug delivery systems.
The main objective of this research was to formulate the novel vesicular carrier systems to formulate transdermal gel of Ketoconazole to increase the skin residence time leading to faster healing of external lesions and reduction of side effects. Vesicular approach and strategy of drug delivery emphasizes on modulating the transdermal drug delivery system to have a significant effect on its efficacy with minimal drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side effects and to increase drug bioavailability. The study revealed that novel vesicle carrier system was found to have immense potential of enhancing transdermal permeation of Ketoconazole. Transdermal application of Ketoconazole entrapped vesicles offers advantages of rapid onset and maximum release of drug.
The delivery of drugs into systemic circulation via skin has generated lot of interest in recent time. Transdermal drug delivery is now a promising route of drug delivery system. The transdermal drug delivery system has potential advantages of avoiding hepatic first pass metabolism, maintaining constant blood levels for longer period of time, decrease side effects, decrease gastrointestinal effect that occur due to local contact with gastric mucosa and improved compliance. The success of transdermal drug delivery system depends on the ability of the drug to penetrate through the skin in sufficient quantities to achieve desired therapeutic levels. Matrix systems is one of the method to delivery drug directly to blood circulation. Iontophoresis is one of the physical approach in enhancement of transdermal permeation. This utilizes electric current as a driving force for permeation of ionic and nonionic medications.