Over the years, the numerical modeling of transport phenomena has been obtained a great portion in the solution of scientific and industrial problems. One of the new numerical techniques is Lattice Boltzmann Method. This method has a lot of advantages like easy implementation, flexible boundary condition, and fast convergence. Also, t is appropriate for simulation of complex geometries and domains like porous media, multiphase flow and etc. The present book provides an investigation of the transport phenomenon in porous media within a computational geometry using LBM. This book should help shed some light on the industrial and educational investigations of porous media and should be particularly useful to professionals in LBM modeling, or anyone else who may be considering employing of numerical techniques for porous and non-porous mediums.
This book is one of the earliest effort in development of contaminant transport modelling in porous media which has been the focus of many researches in hydrology, soil science and environmental and Geo-environmental engineering for many years. Researches mostly have been done from the 1950s and 1960s, created the basis of theoretical developments and analyses for the classical advection-dispersion equation (ADE). Classical advection-dispersion equation can be a satisfactory transport model in homogeneous porous media under some conditions, but It is well proven that such homogeneity rarely, if ever, exists. Wide range of heterogeneity of natural porous media necessitates development of more sophisticated transport theories. The purpose of the present study is to compare analytic solution of ADE with two effective numerical and stochastic models based on finite difference and continuous time random walk to determine the most reliable and accurate method for contaminant transport modeling with focusing on transport of contaminant in heterogeneous porous media.
The study of convection heat and mass transfer in a non-Newtonian fluid saturated porous medium has attracted many investigators due to its wide range of applications in geophysics and energy related problems. The effects like stratification, melting, double dispersion, dissipation, variable viscosity and radiation are important phenomena, understanding the effect of these on coupled convection in porous media is very important. In the existing literature, most of the researchers considered the porous media saturated with Newtonian fluid while studying aforesaid second order effects. This motivates to elaborate these second order effects in non- Newtonian fluid saturated non-Darcy porous media. This book aims at theoretical investigation of some of the above second order effects on natural and mixed convection heat transfer or coupled heat and mass transfer process by considering porous media saturated with non-Newtonian fluids. In each case, the non-dimensional governing equations are solved numerically by similarity and local non-similarity methods wherever applicable.
Colloids refer to particles or macromolecules with at least one dimension of 1nm~1µm. A wide range of environmental particles fall within this category including microorganisms, nanoparticles, and mineral precipitates. Understanding colloid fate and transport in porous medium not only permits more effective protection of water supplies, but also allows for the development of more effective pollutant remediation strategies. Organic matter (OM) complicates colloid behaviour. To date the influence of OM on colloid mobility in porous media has been largely qualitative. This book presents research leading to the development of multiple-pulse column techniques that may be integrated with mathematical models to quantify the effects of OM on particulate colloid attenuation in saturated porous medium. Research has investigated how two groups of environmental organic compounds, humic acids and proteins, influence particulate colloid attenuation by saturated sand. Study findings may shed light on complex colloidal behaviour in organic matter impacted environment and be useful to professionals in contaminant hydrogeology, environmental remediation, and wastewater treatment.
Today, pharmaceutical companies focus on developing more predictive models to describe the physiological processes more precisely so that experiments can be reduced, refined and replaced by the models. Physiological-based models can contribute to a better understanding of mechanisms attributed to pharmacokinetics (PK) and pathophysiological events. Hepatic drug elimination is a major PK process contributing to the loss of drugs in the body. Since the liver is a highly perfused organ with a porous structure, the principles of transport phenomena in porous media can be applied to the liver for modeling of hepatic drug elimination. This book, therefore, overviews concepts of porous media and local volume averaging method followed by elaborating the details of the porous media approach and its validity for modeling the hepatic drug elimination. The modeling approach and the analyses of hepatic drug elimination presented in this book should help shed some light on physiological based modeling, and should be especially useful to students, professionals and scientists who may be considering utilizing mechanistic modeling for analyzing PK processes or pathophysiological events in the body.
Groundwater quality varies due to the chemical, geochemical, and biochemical reactions of the pollutants in the subsurface flow systems. To reliably predict the fate of contaminant transport in groundwater, an accurate numerical modeling is required. Analytical and numerical simulation models help civil engineering to understand the physical and chemical processes that influence contaminant transport through a saturated soil layer, including advective and dispersive transport as well as sorption.In the present investigation, An attempt has been made to provide a simple but sufficiently accurate methodology for numerical simulation of the one, two and three dimensional contaminant transport through the saturated homogeneous porous media and landfill liners using Finite Element method. Exercise was undertaken to determine the rate of movement of contaminants from landfill, so as to arrive at expected future concentrations of contaminants in the groundwater around landfill. Systematic study conducted to determine the impact of municipal solid waste disposal at Bhalaswa landfill Site in New Delhi has reveled that the groundwater is being significantly contaminated due to the leachate.
The movement of fluid in porous media has received significant attention and generated increasing interest due to the importance of porous media in various branches of engineering and science such as reservoir engineering, petroleum engineering, environmental engineering, civil engineering, ground water hydrology, soil science etc. The main objective of the book is to present the fundamentals required to understand the subject and to introduce the different physical phenomena occurs during secondary oil recovery process. Lots of research work can be done in the field of fluid flow through porous media.
Predicating evolution and transport of nitrate, acommon groundwater contaminant in agriculturalwatersheds, can reliably be done through numericalmodelling. This publication is an elaboration of thenumerical technique and simulation procedure fornitrate transport through a porous media. equationsgoverning fluid and contaminant transport through porous media aresolved numerically using the integrated finite difference method. the algorithms generated are then implemented using object oriented computercodes written in C++ programming language.the usefulness of the simulator in proved atvalidation stage where the simulated results are wellcomparable to field data obtained from the area ofsimulation. the manuscript is beneficial toprofessionals and students of environmentalphysics,civil and water engineering, and appliedmathematics.
Mashelkar: ?transport? Phenomena In Polymeric Syst Ems
The study of solute transport phenomena in laminar and turbulent flow situations has a wide range of applications in different fields of engineering sciences and this is the reason that modern fluid dynamics has become a common platform of mathematicians, physicists, chemists, biologists, physiologists, geologists and engineers. Since the pioneer work of Sir G. I. Taylor in 1953, the study of solute transport in longitudinal direction has been extensively studied by different researchers. This book is written for the researchers and post graduate students who are working in the field of time-dependent convection-diffusion problems. A clear view on basic fluid dynamics is given in the first chapter of the book. Three research problems have been carefully chosen to understand the basic mechanism of solute transport phenomena in longitudinal direction, and to predict the dispersion coefficient, mean concentration distribution for all time period using finite-difference technique.
Over the past few decades there has been a great interest in the analysis of the anomalous transport phenomena that appear in complex biological and nanoscale systems. Several mathematical methods have been proposed but a consistent theory is missing. This book is concerned with the derivation of mathematical billiards that can be proposed as models for the study of the mass transport in microporous media. The book provides the relevant background of the mathematical theory of integrable and chaotic billiards and by employing a case study approach explores the onset of different transport phenomena. This book is addressed to graduate students and applied mathematics researchers involved in the mathematical modeling of the transport phenomena in complex systems.
Natural convection in porous media has been researched for a long time. In this study, the focus is on natural convection in two processes in porous media: CO2-sequestration in deep saline aquifers and CO2-Vapex processes. For the natural convection in saline aquifers, the onset of convection and pattern of instabilities are analyzed for an inclined layer and are compared with a horizontal layer. Then, the effect of thermal instability is added to the problem and a double-diffusion (thermohaline) convection is studied. In the second part the effect of instabilities, if present, is studied in the CO2-Vapex process. The analysis is based on a model for the boundary layer in the interface of CO2 chamber/heavy oil. The effect of dispersion and variation of viscosity in the boundary layer are considered in the analysis.
Chloride ions have been identified as an important cause of the initiation and acceleration of the corrosion of the reinforcements within modern concrete structures. This book introduces a comprehensive mathematical model used to describe the mass transport behavior of ionic species in porous media. It takes account most of the major mass transport mechanisms that involved. They are the convection with pore solution, the diffusion in pore solution, the physical/chemical adsorption/desorption on/off the solid phase of porous media and the dynamic electrochemical interactions within the local electrical field generated. The developed mathematical model has subsequently been adopted to model the chloride ingress process in the concrete under saline environmental conditions for the purpose of the service life assessment and the chloride removal process of the concrete under electrochemical treatment for concrete rehabilitation. This mathematical model and numerical methods described in this book can also be used for other environmental problems and engineering applications, such as underground pollutant disperse and land contamination modelling.