the projet will help the farmers for increasing the productivity by checking the growth of weeds at early stage of growth of the growth and increasing the nutritive value of the crops. this will help in reducing the malnutrition in developing children.this will also help in improving the fertility of soil by checking the growth of the weed thereby checking the nutrient losses by weeds.In general there will be more food grain production per unit area.
This book “Crop Residue Management in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” has written for plant nutrient management in rice - wheat cropping system with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The rice-wheat cropping system is one of most widely practiced cropping system in India as well as across the world. The nutrient management in this system is a big task; both crops are heavy nutrient feeder. It requires nutrient cycling from organic residues to maintain nutrient balance in soil. Addition of organic matter to the soil through the return of crop residues also improves soil structure, influences soil water, air and temperature relation, helps to control runoff and erosion and makes tillage easier. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources would be essential for sustainability of the rice-wheat system. This book provides the information about NPK nutrient balance and crop performance under crop residue management practices.
Rice is the staple food for millions of people in the Asia-pacific region; 90% of the world’s rice is grown and consumed in Asia. The indiscriminate use of chemicals in the rice environment thus polluting the fragile system has created an increasing awareness and interest among the rice farmers on organic farming. Weed infestation is regarded as one of the major causes of low crop yields throughout the world and can cause 50-60 % reduction in grain yield under puddle conditions and 91% yield reduction in non-puddled conditions. Organic weed control encourages weed suppression rather than elimination. This is done by promoting soil health through a combination of crop rotation, cover crops, biologically based bio-fertilizers, compost and mulch. Proper management through organic methods offer varied benefits over chemical herbicides, including increased biodiversity, improved soil nutrition and structure, and protection of ground and surface water. The present research work is aimed to confirm this possibility in weed control and evaluate the influence on yield performance in organic rice farming system employing non-chemical weed management practices.
Survival of Little Seed Canary Grass: The little seed canary grass is one of the notorious weeds in the rice-wheat cropping systems in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and elsewhere. The management practices advised to farmers have often failed to control this weed. With significant impact on wheat yields, the weed has become news in the popular and scientific media. In order to design and implement an effective weed management regime, it is very important that the biology of the weed is well understood. In this respect, the survival mechanism of the little seed canary grass and its seed is studied in the rice- wheat cropping conditions where alternative drying and wetting conditions prevail. Designed to understand the seed survival and germination patterns under different soil and cropping conditions, this study, has provided valuable insights into the seed survival conditions for the little seed canary grass and could provide a means to design better crop management practices. This book will be useful for students, researchers and practitioners who are interested in the subject of weed management in general and in rice-wheat cropping systems in specific.
A field experiment was conducted in wheat during rabi season 2011-12 on sandy loam soil at Crop Research Centre, Chirodi of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut (U.P.). In herbicidal weed control treatment recorded At 60,90 DAS and at harvest stage all the weed control treatment reduced the weed density significantly and control the Phalaris minor as well as the broad leaves weeds.
Conclusions drawn on the basis of the results obtained in the present investigation are stated below: 1. Combined application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 (kg ha-1) was the best dose of nutrients in hybrid rice under rice-wheat cropping system which produced highest grain yield (78.91and 75.00 qha-1durng both the years, respectively). It also improved soil fertility status measured as the available N,P,K,S and Zn. 2. For wheat after hybrid rice crop, the application of N150P60K120 kg ha-1 was found most suitable 3. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice showed residual effect on succeeding wheat crop as reflected in respect to grain and straw yields and all the nutrient treatment also improved soil fertility. 4. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T1) increased soil available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and zinc after harvest of each crop. 5. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn0 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T8) was the best treatment and found most economical followed by T1.
Aerobic rice is grown like an upland crop in soil which is not puddled and flooded. Aerobic rice requires 38.8 - 43.3 per cent less water. However, major constraint in aerobic soil condition to achieve higher yield is the problem of weed infestation. In aerobic rice weeds cause yield loss to an extent of 50-100%. in order to overcome this problem an appropriate weed management practices are required. With this background an experiment entitled by Integrated weed management in Aerobic rice was conducted.
Maize is the third most important crop in the world agricultural economy after wheat and rice with an area of 168.26 million hectares with a production of 854.59 million tonnes with average productivity of 5120 kg / ha. Weed management in maize is carried out by manual, mechanical and chemical methods, among which chemical method is the most economical and effective tool to suppress weeds in order to get healthy crop stand and good yield. Advancement in biotechnological research enables genetic engineering to enhance production and minimize crop yield losses through development of crops that are tolerant to insects and herbicides. Genetically modified crops are the most rapidly adopted technology in agricultural history due to the social and economic benefits. Major yield reducing factors for maize cultivation are weeds and insects. Transgenic corn hybrids with stacked event (TC1507 X NK603) were developed for preventing yield losses of corn and improve the productivity. The stacked product having both insect protection and herbicide tolerant traits will provide protection to the crop against target pests and also provide effective weed management system to farmers.
A field trial to compare the non-chemical weed management approach in dry direct seeded fine rice with the chemical methods was conducted at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Kharif, 2009. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Results revealed that manual weeding recorded maximum (99 %) reduction in total weed density and dry weight. Nominee 100SC suppressed weed density and dry weight by >75% over control. Among non-chemical weed management strategies, soil incorporation of sorghum residues at 8 t ha-1 accounted for 52 and 58 % reduction in above said weed attributes. Maximum yield (4.17 t ha-1) was recorded by manual weeding. Manual weeding gave highest net benefits (Rs. 127217 ha-1), while Nominee 100SC scored maximum (23076 %) marginal rate of return.
Poor weed management and indefinite and below optimum plant population used by farmers appear to be the major limiting factors resulting in low productivity of upland rice. With this regard, now a day there is a pressing need for developing a sound weed management and sowing strategy for upland rice. However, lack of information on improved agronomic packages has made the existing upland rice farming more risky and insecure. This book, therefore, provides a success story for farmers, investors, researchers and development workers on timely weeding and optimum seed rate for increased and sustainable production and productivity of upland rice.
Rice-Wheat cropping system covers about 11 m ha in India, is the backbone of India's food security. This cropping system produces as high as 12.8 to 17.0 t/ha/annum at different levels of cultivation and is highly nutrient depleting but the factors responsible for success of this system are good economic return, market infrastructural support and very little risk making increasingly popular with the farmers over the years. The introduction of the non-sensitive, input responsive, relatively early maturing varieties of rice and wheat in the mid 60's enabled farmers to intensify land use and increased the acreage under this important cropping system. In recent years, there is a problem to sustain the high yield levels of rice-wheat in India. Several factors including attack of insect pests and diseases are considered responsible for stagnation in productivity of this cropping system. The present investigations were, therefore, carried out with a view to monitor insect pests, diseases and natural enemies operating in rice and wheat ecosystems and to develop an effective bio intensive management strategy to contain population buildup of major insect pests and diseases of rice and wheat.
Maize (Zea mays L.) being native of Mexico is one of the oldest and most productive cereal food crop. It is the third most planted crop after wheat and rice. It is grown throughout the world for human and animal consumption. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates the demand of maize for human and animal consumption will increase by nearly 300 million tons by 2030. Maize being a rainy season and widely spaced crop gets infested with variety of weeds and subjected to heavy weed competition. Rainy season (kharif) maize suffers heavy yield losses due to weed infestation owing to congenial environmental condition for luxurious weed growth coupled with wider row planting and slow growth at the early stage. Chemical and cultural methods of weed management play vital role in reducing weed infestation. Nutrient management is one of the most important agronomic factors that affect the yield of cereal crop. Most of the crops respond quickly to chemical fertilizers and give higher yield and maize is more responsive. Supplementing nitrogen through inorganic sources, helps in increasing the yield of this crop.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop occupies a pivotal position in Pakistan’s agriculture not only due to the area under its cultivation, but as an export commodity and food security item. At present, more than one third of the human population depends on rice crop for their daily sustenance. Throughout the world, 530 million tons of paddy rice production at an average yield of 3.5 t ha-1 is harvested from 150 million hectares annually. Water scarcity is a main constraint to agricultural productivity in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Water shortage has endangered the sustainability of irrigated rice ecosystem. By considering above mentioned scenario, there is an increasing demand to change policies regarding rice production by substituting and complementing the traditional rice farming techniques with available most up-to-date technologies. Direct seeding of rice could be only attractive alternative of transplanting. It has some favorable position for farmers as the direct seeded crop generally flowers earlier leading to reduction in crop duration. This book has detailed experimental based discussion on direct seeding and management of major problems like weeds.
Among non-chemical weed management techniques, allelopathy (bioherbicides) is considered as an option for weed suppression. To study the potential of allelopathic plants water extracts as a weed management tool in wheat, a field experiment was conducted during rabi 2010 at Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design was used with split plot arrangement. There were two main plots (pre and post application) of plant water extracts and eight sub-plots containing different weed control techniques. The results showed that pre-emergence application of plant water extracts proved to be superior to their post-emergence application in respect of weed control. Pre-emergence application of Phragmites australis and Helianthus annuus gave 68 and 65% weed control, respectively.The results further showed that the application of Sorghum gave maximum biological and grain yield (13194 kg ha-1 and 5015 kg ha-1, respectively) in comparison to weedy check that gave only 10262 kg ha-1 and 2700 respectively.The instant results suggest that Phragmites australis and Helianthus annuus could be successfully incorporated in weed management approaches in wheat.
The book evaluate the performance of canal irrigation system by using special scientific tools like Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System, so that proper measurements could be taken for the sustainable agriculture and water management. Different performance evaluation parameters had been calculated.The purposed data was gathered from field investigation and different government and private organizations. According to the calculations,organic matter ranges from 0.19% (low value) to 0.76% (high value). In comparison of flat and bed irrigation system in wheat crop,the water saving per acre varies from 46.51 to 56.5% of time. The average range of irrigation water saving at site was 51.37%, which provides evidence of 50% water saving in bed planting. Similarly, in rice crop, the range of water saving is 28.91 to 45% which happens due to over irrigation even in bed planting by same farmers. Results showed that on an average percentage yield increase in wheat bed planting fields varies from 11.83 to 29.4 % while 22.27 % increase in yield was obtained from rice bed planting in comparison with flat sowing.