Asian subtropics occupies 21 million hectares of rice-wheat cropping system on their fertile soils. This system carried out on 15 million hectares with highly significant impact for food safety in the area, providing staple food for more than 415 million people.Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has the highest position in food grains in Pakistan: 66% of the total area under food grains is wheat and it contributes 74% of the total food grain production.Tillage is done according to the soil types. Delay in wheat sowing is the result of 6-8 ploughing with planking and loss of high energy.Timely wheat planting after rice ensured in 10 percent higher wheat grain yield in a rice-wheat cropping system.Drilling of wheat in to rice residue using zero tillage has eliminated the time for land preparation and improved crop stand establishment.So,this study has, therefore, been planned to achieve the most economical method for sowing wheat in a rice-wheat cropping system and Quantify the nutrient losses to soil fertility of burning rice straw. Mushtaq Ahmad Gill is the founder of zero tillage and laser land leveling technology in Pakistan and contributed a lot for this research and book.
This book “Crop Residue Management in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” has written for plant nutrient management in rice - wheat cropping system with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The rice-wheat cropping system is one of most widely practiced cropping system in India as well as across the world. The nutrient management in this system is a big task; both crops are heavy nutrient feeder. It requires nutrient cycling from organic residues to maintain nutrient balance in soil. Addition of organic matter to the soil through the return of crop residues also improves soil structure, influences soil water, air and temperature relation, helps to control runoff and erosion and makes tillage easier. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources would be essential for sustainability of the rice-wheat system. This book provides the information about NPK nutrient balance and crop performance under crop residue management practices.
A study was conducted in wheat during rabi season 2012-13 on sandy loam soil at Crop Research Centre, Chirodi of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut (U.P.) Find out the suitable cultivars and different method of planting. To study the effect of different planting methods on growth and yield attributes of rice cultivars. To study the economics of different planting methods.
Present study is in progress since 1990-91 at Crop Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S.Nagar (Uttaranchal) to study the long term effects of herbicide use in rice-wheat system. Treatments consisted of combinations of butachlor at 1.5 kg ha-1,hand weeding (30 and 60 days after transplanting) and weedy check in rice and each kharif season treatment followed by isoproturon at 1.0 kg ha-1,hand weeding twice (30 and 60 days after sowing) and weedy check in wheat. Experiment was laid out in randomized block design, with nine treatments and three replications. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, medium in organic carbon, low in available nitrogen and medium in available phosphorus and potassium with neutral soil reaction. The various studies conducted during Kharif and rabi season of 2003-04 and 2004-05 are presented here.
The rice (Oryza sativa L.) - wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system occupies about 28.8 million hectares mainly spread over Asia’s five countries, namely, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and China. Organic farming offers alternative system for sustainable production and natural resource system. The aim of nutrient management in organic systems is to optimize the use of on–farm resources and minimize losses. Organic materials such as farmyard manure, compost, vermicompost, biogas slurry, green manures, crop residues, biofertilizers and cover crops are other valuable source of nutrients to improve the growth and yield attributes, yields, nutrient uptake, grain quality and soil fertility. The present book is a part of studies which is conducted to determine the optimum combination organic manures crop residues and biofertilizers for meeting nutritional requierment of rice-wheat and rice-wheat-mungbean cropping systems. It also focuses on studying the impact of organic farming practices on the health of soil, quality of organically grown products in order to find out economics of organic farming of rice-based cropping systems.
Rice-Wheat cropping system covers about 11 m ha in India, is the backbone of India's food security. This cropping system produces as high as 12.8 to 17.0 t/ha/annum at different levels of cultivation and is highly nutrient depleting but the factors responsible for success of this system are good economic return, market infrastructural support and very little risk making increasingly popular with the farmers over the years. The introduction of the non-sensitive, input responsive, relatively early maturing varieties of rice and wheat in the mid 60's enabled farmers to intensify land use and increased the acreage under this important cropping system. In recent years, there is a problem to sustain the high yield levels of rice-wheat in India. Several factors including attack of insect pests and diseases are considered responsible for stagnation in productivity of this cropping system. The present investigations were, therefore, carried out with a view to monitor insect pests, diseases and natural enemies operating in rice and wheat ecosystems and to develop an effective bio intensive management strategy to contain population buildup of major insect pests and diseases of rice and wheat.
Conclusions drawn on the basis of the results obtained in the present investigation are stated below: 1. Combined application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 (kg ha-1) was the best dose of nutrients in hybrid rice under rice-wheat cropping system which produced highest grain yield (78.91and 75.00 qha-1durng both the years, respectively). It also improved soil fertility status measured as the available N,P,K,S and Zn. 2. For wheat after hybrid rice crop, the application of N150P60K120 kg ha-1 was found most suitable 3. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice showed residual effect on succeeding wheat crop as reflected in respect to grain and straw yields and all the nutrient treatment also improved soil fertility. 4. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T1) increased soil available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and zinc after harvest of each crop. 5. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn0 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T8) was the best treatment and found most economical followed by T1.
Technical efficiency in wheat production across major cropping zones of the Punjab (Pakistan) through stochastic frontier production function with Cobb-Douglas specification has been analyzed. The mean technical efficiency of wheat production was 78.2, 82.8, 80.2 and 50.1 percent in the mixed, cotton-wheat, rice-wheat and rain-fed zones, respectively. The results signify that there is a scope to increase wheat productivity through technical efficiency improvements under existing conditions of input use and technology. In the irrigated zones, number of ploughings for land preparation, use of chemical fertilizers and number of irrigation applications contributed positively to the crop production. The inefficiency in wheat production was due to sowing of poor quality produce as seed year after year, wheat crop acreage at the farms in irrigated zones and due to incidences of technical and financial problems in both irrigated as well as rain-fed zones. While, operational farm size and farmers’ contact with extension agents in the irrigated cropping zones and education level of the farmers in the rain-fed zone were technical inefficiency decreasing farmer characteristics.
Impact of Direct Seeding of Rice on Household Welfare in Pakistan Executive Summary The current study was carried out in the rice-wheat area of Pakistani Punjab to access the impact of direct seeding of rice sowing technology on household welfare in Pakistan. The direct seeding of rice (DSR) technology in Pakistan was introduced a couple of years back, with the idea to increase the crop yields and to save the use of inputs like water, fertilizer and labour. For estimating the impact detailed comprehensive survey was carried out in three main rice-wheat districts i.e. Gujranwala, Sheikhpura and Hafizabad. A detailed questionnaire was prepared for carrying out the analysis. The impact of direct rice sowing technology was estimated on rice and wheat crops yield, water, weedicide and labour demand. The empirical analysis indicates that adopters of direct seeding of rice sowing technology are getting higher net returns in the range of 8-9 maunds per acre. The comparative profitability analysis indicates that in case of direct seeding of rice sowing technology the cost of production is high than the conventional transplanting of rice but the net returns are more in case of direct seeding
Dr. Y.V.Singh, Senior Scientist (Agronomy), IARI,New Delhi, India, has developed protocol for Basmati rice cultivation through organic management for sustainable productivity and better quality. In this protocol he used four (Blue green algae @ 2.0 kg/ha, Azolla @ 1.0t/ha/ Azotobacter @ 0.5 kg/ha, vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha and Farm yard manure @ 5.0 t/ha) organic inoculants to meet the nutrient requirement of organic Basmati rice-wheat-green gram system and got
Rice-wheat cropping system in Pakistan covers almost 2 million hectares and pre-dominantly spreads across districts of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Norowal and Shiekhupura in Punjab. The present study was taken up as a start of a long-term study of fungal pathogens in rice-wheat cropping system in Pakistan in order to understand the biology of these, so that the knowledge so gained could be used to develop a strong disease management based largely on the host resistance. The study concentrated on root rot and foliar blight and associated fungi that were common to rice and wheat primarily. It has provided basic information on the prevalence and incidence of these diseases in the main four districts of rice-wheat areas of Punjab namely Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Narowal and Sialkot. Fungi from root, foliage and soil in both wheat and rice crop were isolated and identified and their aggressiveness studied using pathogenicity analysis. Isolates of these fungi were genetically characterized using RAPD''s. The investigations were based on two surveys of wheat one in 1999 and other in 2000 done at the booting and heading stage of the crop covering 21 and 20 key locations of the area, respectively.
Wheat is an important cereal crop in the world after rice because whole world fulfill their need of food from wheat crop.Now a days, farmers are getting interest in cash crop production due to higher cultivation cost in wheat production system.To offset this problem,scientists have developed some technologies.Among these technologies,Zero tillage crop production system is getting acceptance all over the world.Taking into consideration, A study was carried out on different four sowing method namely zero till drill,raised bed planter,country plough and broadcasting of seeds in sandy loam soil of North Gujarat region in India.The conclusion drawn from the study was that Zero till system is economically viable production system of wheat crop in sandy laom soil condition of the region. This book, therefore,provides all the field testing data of four different sowing method for wheat crop extensively useful for students of Agriculture,Agricultural Engineering and persons engaged in research work on Resource conservation Technologies and anyone else, who may be considering to help farm community all over the world.
Effect of various tillage practices on soil Physical properties, root growth and yield of wheat - maize rotation were studied during 1996 - 99 at NWFP Agricultural University Research Farm, Peshawar, Pakistan. Tillage implements were used in the experiments moldboard plow, disk plow, disk harrow, rotavator and cultivator. Lowest average bulk density and soil strength of 1.46, 1.57 g/cm3 and 62.9, 121 N/cm2 respectively were recorded in deep tillage plots while the highest of 1.52, 1.62 g/cm3 and 75.6, 140.7 N/cm2 respectively were found in shallow tillage plots for two depths (i.e. 0 - 21 and 22 - 42 cm). Significantly higher root length and dry root weight of wheat were found in deep tillage (moldboard plow and rotavator once, M1R1) and the minimum root length and dry root weight were recorded in the shallow tillage (C2). Highest grain yield of wheat and maize (4422 and 4827 kg/ha) were found in the deep tillage (M1R1) while the lowest (3806 and 3966 kg/ha) were noted in the shallow tillage (C2). In general, deep tillage improved the soil physical conditions. Therefore, it is recommended for optimum yield of wheat and maize under irrigated clay loam soil condition.
Establishment method and sowing time has great influence on soil moisture conservation and wheat yield. Conservation tillage helps in early sowing of the wheat in rice-wheat cropping pattern and helps to escape the heat stress in winter wheat. Conservation tillage has positive impact on yield by conserving the moisture and prevent the wheat from anthesis and post anthesis drought where as the conventional tillage has higher germination percentage and good crop stand. Mulching in winter wheat plays significant role in soil moisture conservation and lowers the weed population.
Survival of Little Seed Canary Grass: The little seed canary grass is one of the notorious weeds in the rice-wheat cropping systems in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and elsewhere. The management practices advised to farmers have often failed to control this weed. With significant impact on wheat yields, the weed has become news in the popular and scientific media. In order to design and implement an effective weed management regime, it is very important that the biology of the weed is well understood. In this respect, the survival mechanism of the little seed canary grass and its seed is studied in the rice- wheat cropping conditions where alternative drying and wetting conditions prevail. Designed to understand the seed survival and germination patterns under different soil and cropping conditions, this study, has provided valuable insights into the seed survival conditions for the little seed canary grass and could provide a means to design better crop management practices. This book will be useful for students, researchers and practitioners who are interested in the subject of weed management in general and in rice-wheat cropping systems in specific.