Residual effects of Zinc (Zn) fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) help in economizing the fertilizer use without any adverse effect on soil fertility and crop yields. No information is available for residual effect of Zn fertilizer applied in conjunction with FYM to rice-wheat rotation practiced in the northern plains, hot sub-humid (dry) ecoregion of India. The present investigation was carried out to determine the residual effect of Zn fertilizer application with or without farmyard manure on yields, cationic micro-nutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) concentration and uptake of third crop rice and fourth crop wheat under rotation. The residual of conjoint use of 2.5 or 3.75 Kg Zn/ha + 5 t FYM/ha was found most beneficial for increasing both yields and nutrient uptake of both rice and wheat crops.
Conclusions drawn on the basis of the results obtained in the present investigation are stated below: 1. Combined application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 (kg ha-1) was the best dose of nutrients in hybrid rice under rice-wheat cropping system which produced highest grain yield (78.91and 75.00 qha-1durng both the years, respectively). It also improved soil fertility status measured as the available N,P,K,S and Zn. 2. For wheat after hybrid rice crop, the application of N150P60K120 kg ha-1 was found most suitable 3. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice showed residual effect on succeeding wheat crop as reflected in respect to grain and straw yields and all the nutrient treatment also improved soil fertility. 4. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T1) increased soil available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and zinc after harvest of each crop. 5. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn0 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T8) was the best treatment and found most economical followed by T1.
Wheat is an important stable foodgrain crop and being the main source of calories it has immense importance in Indian diet. Sandy soils of Rajasthan are excessively permeable, poor in organic matter and prone to be deficient in potassium and zinc availability. An intensive cropping lead to depletion of potassium from the soil due to it’s released from fixed forms. Besides, a greater emphasis on nitrogen fertilization corresponding to potassium is influence soil fertility, crop yields and sustainability of agriculture. Already a fall in productivity in the absence of potassium has been proven from long-term experiments. Like potassium, more attention is also necessary on the management of micro-nutrients especially zinc. Zinc is an important micro-nutrient reported deficient in Indian soils and cause poor yield in rice-wheat growing soils of North-western India. When potassium and zinc are applied to soil they undergo transformation to various chemical pools, the nature of which differs across soils. Looking to the role played by potassium and zinc in boosting up the productivity and quality of wheat and soil health the present study was undertaken.
Asian subtropics occupies 21 million hectares of rice-wheat cropping system on their fertile soils. This system carried out on 15 million hectares with highly significant impact for food safety in the area, providing staple food for more than 415 million people.Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has the highest position in food grains in Pakistan: 66% of the total area under food grains is wheat and it contributes 74% of the total food grain production.Tillage is done according to the soil types. Delay in wheat sowing is the result of 6-8 ploughing with planking and loss of high energy.Timely wheat planting after rice ensured in 10 percent higher wheat grain yield in a rice-wheat cropping system.Drilling of wheat in to rice residue using zero tillage has eliminated the time for land preparation and improved crop stand establishment.So,this study has, therefore, been planned to achieve the most economical method for sowing wheat in a rice-wheat cropping system and Quantify the nutrient losses to soil fertility of burning rice straw. Mushtaq Ahmad Gill is the founder of zero tillage and laser land leveling technology in Pakistan and contributed a lot for this research and book.
The experiment was laid out in Randomized block design with nine treatments and three replications. The higher dose of PBSW (500 m3 ha-1) seems to be superior on sodic soil in improving soil physical, chemical properties, increasing yield and uptake of N, P and K by wheat crop in sodic soil. The treatment FYM + 100 % GR + RDF was equally superior to the treatment PBSW @ 500 m3 ha-1 indicating that the dose of PBSW @ 500 m3 ha-1 was equivalent to FYM + 100 % GR + RDF in improving soil physico-chemical properties and yield of wheat in sodic soil. There was improvement in physical and chemical properties, increase in wheat yield and nutrient uptake by wheat in sodic soil as the dose of PBSW increased from 100 m3 ha-1 to 500 m3 ha-1.
Rice-wheat cropping system in Pakistan covers almost 2 million hectares and pre-dominantly spreads across districts of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Norowal and Shiekhupura in Punjab. The present study was taken up as a start of a long-term study of fungal pathogens in rice-wheat cropping system in Pakistan in order to understand the biology of these, so that the knowledge so gained could be used to develop a strong disease management based largely on the host resistance. The study concentrated on root rot and foliar blight and associated fungi that were common to rice and wheat primarily. It has provided basic information on the prevalence and incidence of these diseases in the main four districts of rice-wheat areas of Punjab namely Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Narowal and Sialkot. Fungi from root, foliage and soil in both wheat and rice crop were isolated and identified and their aggressiveness studied using pathogenicity analysis. Isolates of these fungi were genetically characterized using RAPD''s. The investigations were based on two surveys of wheat one in 1999 and other in 2000 done at the booting and heading stage of the crop covering 21 and 20 key locations of the area, respectively.
Dr. Y.V.Singh, Senior Scientist (Agronomy), IARI,New Delhi, India, has developed protocol for Basmati rice cultivation through organic management for sustainable productivity and better quality. In this protocol he used four (Blue green algae @ 2.0 kg/ha, Azolla @ 1.0t/ha/ Azotobacter @ 0.5 kg/ha, vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha and Farm yard manure @ 5.0 t/ha) organic inoculants to meet the nutrient requirement of organic Basmati rice-wheat-green gram system and got
This book “Crop Residue Management in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” has written for plant nutrient management in rice - wheat cropping system with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The rice-wheat cropping system is one of most widely practiced cropping system in India as well as across the world. The nutrient management in this system is a big task; both crops are heavy nutrient feeder. It requires nutrient cycling from organic residues to maintain nutrient balance in soil. Addition of organic matter to the soil through the return of crop residues also improves soil structure, influences soil water, air and temperature relation, helps to control runoff and erosion and makes tillage easier. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources would be essential for sustainability of the rice-wheat system. This book provides the information about NPK nutrient balance and crop performance under crop residue management practices.
Sorghum is a highly Zn sensitive crop in the cereals. Among the major cereal crops sorghum ranks fourth in the world after wheat, rice and maize. Sorghum is mostly grown in Pakistan but mainly under rain fed areas both for forage and grain purposes.Zinc is an essential micronutrient for normal crop growth and Zn deficiency can severely impair crop growth and decrease yields. Zn fertilizers and synthetic chelates like Zn-EDTA can also be used that are organic materials which upon their decomposition release certain substances which serve as natural chelates.
To study Soil organic matter pools under integrated nutrient management in continuous Maize-Wheat Cropping System, soil samples were drawn at a depth of 0-15 cm from long term fertilizer experiment trial of AICRP, at Instructional Farm of Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur after nine years rotation of maize-wheat crop.. The experiment consisted of 12 treatment combinations viz., T1-100% NPK; T2-100% NPK + Zn; T3-100% NPK + Zn + S; T4-100% NPK + S; T5-100% NPK + seed treatment with Azotobacter; T6-FYM @ 10 t ha-1 + (100% NPK – NPK content of FYM); T7-100% NPK + FYM @ 10 t ha-1; T8-FYM @ 20 t ha-1; T9-150% NPK; T10-100% NP; T11-100% N; T12-control (no manure and no fertilizer) with four replications in a randomized block design. A significant improvement in the physical properties bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and in chemical properties cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content of the soil by the incorporation of FYM alone or in combination with chemical fertilizers.The soil organic matter pools were noticeably higher in plots dressed with organic and inorganic (100% NPK + FYM) compared to the plots receiving only inorganic fertilizers (100% NPK).
The rice-wheat production system has major role in food security in the region and provides livelihood and income to millions of farmers in IGP. The lack of suitable mechanization and modernization with proper soil-crop management strategies is probably the cause of higher cost requirement and low return in the system. Current crop cultivation practices in rice-wheat systems degrade the soil and water resources thereby threaten the sustainability. The concept of alternative agricultural system is put forward to improve in net return with minimum resource use from crop cultivation is conservation agriculture (CA) the best alternative to protect soil, water, environment, time and cost. CA practices in Nepalese context have drastically reduced tillage intensity, reducing the cost of cultivation and allowing timely sowing with comparable yield.
The present study was based on two experiments: one carried out in pot under natural condition and other carried out in field. In potted plant the effects PGPRs and Rhizobium leguminosarum have been studied on the growth, yield parameters and N2 fixation of chickpea under natural condition. Kinetin was found to be the most affective in increasing growth parameter and nitrogen fixation of chickpea. Application of Rhizobium inoculum, generally increased growth yields components and Nitrogen fixation. The pattern of response to hormone and Rhizobium inoculum was consistent in the three consecutive years. It would suggest that that both the efficiency and the longevity of the nodules favorably affected by kinetin application. A three-year chickpea-wheat rotation study in fields was carried in a well-drained sandy soil to quantify nitrogen fixation by chickpea and determine its residual N effects on soil N-fertility and yield of following wheat crop. Continuous chickpea crop and its rotation with wheat enhanced N fertility level of the soil. Our results support the strategy of using legumes in rotation with wheat in the arid region forenhancing soil N-supply and increasing wheat yield.
Impact of Direct Seeding of Rice on Household Welfare in Pakistan Executive Summary The current study was carried out in the rice-wheat area of Pakistani Punjab to access the impact of direct seeding of rice sowing technology on household welfare in Pakistan. The direct seeding of rice (DSR) technology in Pakistan was introduced a couple of years back, with the idea to increase the crop yields and to save the use of inputs like water, fertilizer and labour. For estimating the impact detailed comprehensive survey was carried out in three main rice-wheat districts i.e. Gujranwala, Sheikhpura and Hafizabad. A detailed questionnaire was prepared for carrying out the analysis. The impact of direct rice sowing technology was estimated on rice and wheat crops yield, water, weedicide and labour demand. The empirical analysis indicates that adopters of direct seeding of rice sowing technology are getting higher net returns in the range of 8-9 maunds per acre. The comparative profitability analysis indicates that in case of direct seeding of rice sowing technology the cost of production is high than the conventional transplanting of rice but the net returns are more in case of direct seeding
Establishment method and sowing time has great influence on soil moisture conservation and wheat yield. Conservation tillage helps in early sowing of the wheat in rice-wheat cropping pattern and helps to escape the heat stress in winter wheat. Conservation tillage has positive impact on yield by conserving the moisture and prevent the wheat from anthesis and post anthesis drought where as the conventional tillage has higher germination percentage and good crop stand. Mulching in winter wheat plays significant role in soil moisture conservation and lowers the weed population.
Wheat crop being the world''s leading cereal crop has the major role in the hunger reduction from the mushrooming world population. With the development of high yielding varieties and new technologies, the production and productivity since late 1970s has increased significantly up to this date. Still there are various yield limiting factors and one of them is the late-sowing condition especially in the agro-zones where rice-wheat system prevails. In the recent context of climate change and global warming, the production practices of many crops have been pushed to gradually change. In the rice-wheat system of cropping pattern, late sowing of wheat is becoming a common phenomenon and for any reason of late sowing, suitable variety/genotype selection with proper fertilization especially only nitrogen management can be the boon to greatly boost up the production and net returns from wheat cultivation. This book is especially important to those who are willing to conduct research activity in the field of crop science & wheat agronomy, farmers, students, academicians and development professionals.