Residual effects of Zinc (Zn) fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) help in economizing the fertilizer use without any adverse effect on soil fertility and crop yields. No information is available for residual effect of Zn fertilizer applied in conjunction with FYM to rice-wheat rotation practiced in the northern plains, hot sub-humid (dry) ecoregion of India. The present investigation was carried out to determine the residual effect of Zn fertilizer application with or without farmyard manure on yields, cationic micro-nutrients (Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn) concentration and uptake of third crop rice and fourth crop wheat under rotation. The residual of conjoint use of 2.5 or 3.75 Kg Zn/ha + 5 t FYM/ha was found most beneficial for increasing both yields and nutrient uptake of both rice and wheat crops.
Wheat is an important stable foodgrain crop and being the main source of calories it has immense importance in Indian diet. Sandy soils of Rajasthan are excessively permeable, poor in organic matter and prone to be deficient in potassium and zinc availability. An intensive cropping lead to depletion of potassium from the soil due to it’s released from fixed forms. Besides, a greater emphasis on nitrogen fertilization corresponding to potassium is influence soil fertility, crop yields and sustainability of agriculture. Already a fall in productivity in the absence of potassium has been proven from long-term experiments. Like potassium, more attention is also necessary on the management of micro-nutrients especially zinc. Zinc is an important micro-nutrient reported deficient in Indian soils and cause poor yield in rice-wheat growing soils of North-western India. When potassium and zinc are applied to soil they undergo transformation to various chemical pools, the nature of which differs across soils. Looking to the role played by potassium and zinc in boosting up the productivity and quality of wheat and soil health the present study was undertaken.
This book “Crop Residue Management in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” has written for plant nutrient management in rice - wheat cropping system with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The rice-wheat cropping system is one of most widely practiced cropping system in India as well as across the world. The nutrient management in this system is a big task; both crops are heavy nutrient feeder. It requires nutrient cycling from organic residues to maintain nutrient balance in soil. Addition of organic matter to the soil through the return of crop residues also improves soil structure, influences soil water, air and temperature relation, helps to control runoff and erosion and makes tillage easier. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources would be essential for sustainability of the rice-wheat system. This book provides the information about NPK nutrient balance and crop performance under crop residue management practices.
Conclusions drawn on the basis of the results obtained in the present investigation are stated below: 1. Combined application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 (kg ha-1) was the best dose of nutrients in hybrid rice under rice-wheat cropping system which produced highest grain yield (78.91and 75.00 qha-1durng both the years, respectively). It also improved soil fertility status measured as the available N,P,K,S and Zn. 2. For wheat after hybrid rice crop, the application of N150P60K120 kg ha-1 was found most suitable 3. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice showed residual effect on succeeding wheat crop as reflected in respect to grain and straw yields and all the nutrient treatment also improved soil fertility. 4. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T1) increased soil available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and zinc after harvest of each crop. 5. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn0 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T8) was the best treatment and found most economical followed by T1.
Sorghum is a highly Zn sensitive crop in the cereals. Among the major cereal crops sorghum ranks fourth in the world after wheat, rice and maize. Sorghum is mostly grown in Pakistan but mainly under rain fed areas both for forage and grain purposes.Zinc is an essential micronutrient for normal crop growth and Zn deficiency can severely impair crop growth and decrease yields. Zn fertilizers and synthetic chelates like Zn-EDTA can also be used that are organic materials which upon their decomposition release certain substances which serve as natural chelates.
Recommendation: On the basis of two years of experimental findings, it may be recommended that. 1. Variety NDR-359 should be preferred over HUBR 2-1 for achieving higher yield, with sequential application of Zn-EDTA @ 1.00 kg ha-1 through soil followed by Fe-EDTA @ 0.5 kg ha-1 through foliar spray. 2. However, HUBR 2-1 can be recommended with the application of Zn-EDTA @ 1.00 kg ha-1 through soil and Fe-EDTA @ 0.5 kg ha-1 through foliar spray separately for achieving higher zinc and iron content in grain. 3. Application of 75% RFD (90, 45, 45 kg ha-1 N, P2O5 and K2O) through inorganics and 25% N through FYM can be made for obtaining higher grain yield and better quality in terms of higher zinc and iron content in grains.
The BGREI Programme made certain innovative beginnings for the first time in the history of technology transfer for crop production in India. These included the provision of “cluster approach” for organizing “Block Demonstrations. Another landmark comprised provision of cash doles to the beneficiary farmers to support the instant expenditure towards land preparation & deep ploughing and direct seeding/transplanting in lines in rice and line sowing in wheat as a component of the Block demonstrations of these crops. Deep ploughing and direct seeding/transplanting in rain-fed upland/lowland/irrigated rice cultivation and line sowing in wheat crop are recommended agronomic practices for improved productivity. These operations were hitherto not practiced by the farmers due to various pecuniary/structural reasons such as absence of financial inclusion, inability to repay loans, small size of holdings and lack of knowledge vibrancy. Besides these interventions, provision of flexibility in the form of “site specific needs” also helped the farmers as well as implementing departments in completing the agriculture operations most efficiently.
Dr. Y.V.Singh, Senior Scientist (Agronomy), IARI,New Delhi, India, has developed protocol for Basmati rice cultivation through organic management for sustainable productivity and better quality. In this protocol he used four (Blue green algae @ 2.0 kg/ha, Azolla @ 1.0t/ha/ Azotobacter @ 0.5 kg/ha, vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha and Farm yard manure @ 5.0 t/ha) organic inoculants to meet the nutrient requirement of organic Basmati rice-wheat-green gram system and got
Asian subtropics occupies 21 million hectares of rice-wheat cropping system on their fertile soils. This system carried out on 15 million hectares with highly significant impact for food safety in the area, providing staple food for more than 415 million people.Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has the highest position in food grains in Pakistan: 66% of the total area under food grains is wheat and it contributes 74% of the total food grain production.Tillage is done according to the soil types. Delay in wheat sowing is the result of 6-8 ploughing with planking and loss of high energy.Timely wheat planting after rice ensured in 10 percent higher wheat grain yield in a rice-wheat cropping system.Drilling of wheat in to rice residue using zero tillage has eliminated the time for land preparation and improved crop stand establishment.So,this study has, therefore, been planned to achieve the most economical method for sowing wheat in a rice-wheat cropping system and Quantify the nutrient losses to soil fertility of burning rice straw. Mushtaq Ahmad Gill is the founder of zero tillage and laser land leveling technology in Pakistan and contributed a lot for this research and book.
This book “Soil Zinc fractions and Nutritional composition of Seeded Rice” is the outcome of research experience in soil science. Rice [Oryza sativa (L.) family Graminae] is one of the most important and valuable cereal crop in world. The largest cultivated area of India subcontinent is planted with paddy. During the last few years, zinc has assumed greater importance in crop production and its deficiency in the field crops, has been recognized on an extensive scale. Farm yard manure, poultry manure and piggery manures also exert positive effect on the major as well as micro nutrients availability. Till date very meagre information is available in the literature on different forms of zinc and their availability in black soils. Thus, the knowledge and information about the effect of zinc and different organic matter on soil zinc fractions and nutritional composition of seeded rice under vertisols is essential.
Soils of Pakistan have free CaCO3, alkaline pH and low organic matter. Consequently, nutrient disorders seem among the most critical factors of crop production, particularly in salt-affected soils. The essentially of P and Zn for plants has been established long ago but interaction effects on economic yields of crops are still controversial. Wheat is the most important cereal crop in the world. In a pot study on wheat grown on salt-affected soil, results indicated that mean number of tillers per pot, height of fertile tillers, straw dry weight, 1000-grain weight and P uptake in straw was recorded maximum with control closely followed by T5 (P @ 150 kg ha-1 + Zn @ 10 kg ha-1) while Zn concentration was maximum in straw and grains, P uptake by grains, Zn uptake by straw and grains with P @ 150 kg ha-1 + Zn @ 10 kg ha-1. However, when P-Zn interactions were investigated, it was observed that application of 150 kg P ha-1 & 10 kg Zn ha-1 could be the appropriate fertilizer combination for significant increase in growth and yield of wheat in salt-affected soil. Moreover, adverse effect of salinity/sodicity can be minimized by increasing the fertility status of the salt-affected soil.
The book evaluate the performance of canal irrigation system by using special scientific tools like Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System, so that proper measurements could be taken for the sustainable agriculture and water management. Different performance evaluation parameters had been calculated.The purposed data was gathered from field investigation and different government and private organizations. According to the calculations,organic matter ranges from 0.19% (low value) to 0.76% (high value). In comparison of flat and bed irrigation system in wheat crop,the water saving per acre varies from 46.51 to 56.5% of time. The average range of irrigation water saving at site was 51.37%, which provides evidence of 50% water saving in bed planting. Similarly, in rice crop, the range of water saving is 28.91 to 45% which happens due to over irrigation even in bed planting by same farmers. Results showed that on an average percentage yield increase in wheat bed planting fields varies from 11.83 to 29.4 % while 22.27 % increase in yield was obtained from rice bed planting in comparison with flat sowing.
Present study is in progress since 1990-91 at Crop Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S.Nagar (Uttaranchal) to study the long term effects of herbicide use in rice-wheat system. Treatments consisted of combinations of butachlor at 1.5 kg ha-1,hand weeding (30 and 60 days after transplanting) and weedy check in rice and each kharif season treatment followed by isoproturon at 1.0 kg ha-1,hand weeding twice (30 and 60 days after sowing) and weedy check in wheat. Experiment was laid out in randomized block design, with nine treatments and three replications. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, medium in organic carbon, low in available nitrogen and medium in available phosphorus and potassium with neutral soil reaction. The various studies conducted during Kharif and rabi season of 2003-04 and 2004-05 are presented here.
Rice is the important cereal crop grown mostly on Indian soils irrespective of soil types and conditions. Zinc deficiency is common in flooded soils because of the reducing conditions that develop following submergence, with Zn becoming immobilized with ferrous iron compounds and other solid phases formed in reducing processes. The text presented in the book is sub divided into 7 chapters. This book envisages on how to improve the zinc use efficiency in paddy soil by different chemical and physical soil management. Suitable extractant of Zinc in a rice soil has also been described in detail. Source, rate and time of application of zinc for rice are very crucial for its optimum utilization and have been dealt separately with experimental evidence. This book is a comprehensive one and will meet the growing needs of soil science students for zinc management in paddy soil. Hopefully, the technical information contained herein will prove useful to students, teachers, scientists working in the field of Soil Science, Agronomy and Extension personnel.
Wheat crop being the world''s leading cereal crop has the major role in the hunger reduction from the mushrooming world population. With the development of high yielding varieties and new technologies, the production and productivity since late 1970s has increased significantly up to this date. Still there are various yield limiting factors and one of them is the late-sowing condition especially in the agro-zones where rice-wheat system prevails. In the recent context of climate change and global warming, the production practices of many crops have been pushed to gradually change. In the rice-wheat system of cropping pattern, late sowing of wheat is becoming a common phenomenon and for any reason of late sowing, suitable variety/genotype selection with proper fertilization especially only nitrogen management can be the boon to greatly boost up the production and net returns from wheat cultivation. This book is especially important to those who are willing to conduct research activity in the field of crop science & wheat agronomy, farmers, students, academicians and development professionals.